Sunday, February 29, 2004

Frederick I

In 1688 Frederick succeeded to the electorate and at once set out, assisted

Saturday, February 28, 2004


The field of science concerned with the chemical substances and processes that occur in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Specifically, it involves the quantitative determination and structural analysis of the organic compounds that comprise the basic constituents of cells (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and of those that play a key role in chemical

Friday, February 27, 2004


Borough (town), Camden county, southwestern New Jersey, U.S., a southeastern suburb of Camden. First settled by Francis Collins in 1682, it was later named by Elizabeth Haddon, an English Quaker girl who settled there about 1701. The story of her romance with a Quaker missionary, John Estaugh, is told by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his Tales of a Wayside Inn (1863). She lived to be 82, and her personal

Thursday, February 26, 2004

Murat, Joachim

The son of an innkeeper, he studied briefly for a career in the church but enlisted in a cavalry regiment in 1787 and, when war broke out in 1792, won rapid promotion. In October 1795 he was

Wednesday, February 25, 2004

Albuquerque, Afonso De, The Great

Albuquerque was the second son of the senhor

Tuesday, February 24, 2004

Nafusah Plateau

Arabic �Jabal Nafusah, Nafusah �also spelled �Nefusa, � hilly limestone massif, northwestern Libya. It extends in a west-northeasterly arc between Al-Jifarah (Gefara) plain and Al-Hamra' Plateau. With heights ranging from 1,500 to 3,200 feet (460 to 980 m), the plateau runs east for 120 miles (190 km) from the Tunisian border to the Kiklah Trough and then curves northeast for 93 miles (150 km), ending in hills near the Mediterranean coast at Al-Khums. It is crowned by a

Monday, February 23, 2004


Modern �'Aqarquf� fortified city and royal residence of the later Kassite kings, located near Babylon in southern Mesopotamia (now in Iraq). This city was founded either by Kurigalzu I (c. 1400 - c. 1375 BC) or by Kurigalzu II (c. 1332 - 08). Between AD 1943 and 1945, Iraqi excavations unearthed a monumental ziggurat, three temples, and a palace with painted wall decorations and an ambulatory with square pillars. The temples, dedicated

Sunday, February 22, 2004

Eagle Owl

(Bubo bubo), bird of the family Strigidae (order Strigiformes), characterized by its large size (often 70 centimetres [about 2.3 feet] long), two tufts of feathers on the head (ear tufts), and large orange eyes. The overall coloration is tawny, mottled with brown, lighter below. The eagle owl roosts and breeds within rocky niches and hollow trees. At twilight it perches on a branch while

Saturday, February 21, 2004

Molecular Sieve

A porous solid, usually a synthetic or a natural zeolite, that separates particles of molecular dimension. Zeolites are hydrated metal aluminosilicate compounds with well-defined crystalline structures. The silicate and aluminate groupings form three-dimensional crystal lattices surrounding cavities in which the metal ions and the water molecules are

Friday, February 20, 2004

Furniture, China

Remarkably little systematic study has been made of Chinese furniture. Its origins remain comparatively obscure, its workshops mostly unrecorded, its designers unknown; consequently, its dating is extremely difficult. Most of the forms of Chinese furniture, such as the low table and the covered bed, are found in the oldest Chinese paintings in existence; the designs

Thursday, February 19, 2004


In music, traditionally, any adaptation of a composition to fit a medium other than that for which it was originally written, while at the same time retaining the general character of the original. The word was frequently used interchangeably with transcription, although the latter carried the connotation of elaboration of the original, as in the virtuosic piano

Tuesday, February 17, 2004


Modern viewfinders are variations on two types: reflex and direct optical. In the single-lens reflex camera, the camera lens

Monday, February 16, 2004

Pitted Shell Turtle

Also called �Fly River Turtle, or New Guinea Plateless Turtle� (species Carettochelys insculpta), any member of a single species in the turtle family Carettochelyidae. The species lives in rivers in southern New Guinea and in a limited region in northern Australia. A combination of characteristics separates C. insculpta from other turtles, including a leathery shell with no scutes and sea turtlelike flippers. Little is known

Sunday, February 15, 2004

La Bruy�re, Jean De

La Bruy�re studied law at

Saturday, February 14, 2004

Joule-thomson Effect

The change in temperature that accompanies expansion of a gas without production of work or transfer of heat. At ordinary temperatures and pressures, all real gases except hydrogen and helium cool upon such expansion; this phenomenon often is utilized in liquefying gases. Hydrogen and helium cool upon expansion only if their initial temperatures are very low.

Friday, February 13, 2004


(Bos gaurus), one of several species of wild cattle, family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla). The gaur lives in small herds in the mountain forests of India, Southeast Asia, and the Malay Peninsula. Larger than any other wild cattle, it attains a shoulder height of 1.8 m (6 feet) or more. It is heavy-bodied and typically blue-eyed and has curving horns, a high ridge on the forepart

Thursday, February 12, 2004

Jack Of Diamonds

Also called �Knave Of Diamonds, �Russian �Bubnovy Valet, � group of artists founded in Moscow in 1909, whose members were for the next few years the leading exponents of avant-garde art in Russia. The group's first exhibition, held in December 1910, included works by the French Cubists Albert Gleizes, Henri Le Fauconnier, and Andr� Lhote; other paintings were exhibited by Wassily Kandinsky and Alexey von Jawlensky, both Russian artists

Wednesday, February 11, 2004


�(Tc), � chemical element, synthetic radioactive metal of Group VIIb of the periodic table, the first element to be artificially produced. The isotope technetium-97 (2,600,000-year half-life) was discovered (1937) by the Italian mineralogist Carlo Perrier and the Italian-born American physicist Emilio Segr� in a sample of molybdenum that had been bombarded by deuterons in the Berkeley (California)

Tuesday, February 10, 2004

Raccoon Dog

(Nyctereutes procyonoides), member of the dog family (Canidae) native to eastern Asia and introduced into Europe. Some authorities place it in the raccoon family, Procyonidae. It resembles the raccoon in having dark facial markings that contrast with its yellowish brown coat, but it does not have a ringed tail. It has short, brown or blackish limbs, a heavy body, and rounded

Monday, February 09, 2004

Palack�, Franti

He early came into contact with the resurgence of national feeling that had begun to influence Czech and Slovak intellectuals. His

Sunday, February 08, 2004


Pinyin �Fushoulu, � in Chinese mythology, a collective term for the three so-called stellar gods, taken from their names: Fu Hsing, Shou Hsing, and Lu Hsing (qq.v.).

Saturday, February 07, 2004


City, seat (1907) of Hughes county, central Oklahoma, U.S. Founded in 1895 and originally called Fentress, the town site was renamed for J.F. Holden, general manager of the Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf Railroad. The city lies on the edge of the Greater Seminole Oil Field and is a market centre for locally grown agricultural goods. Lake Holdenville, just outside the city, is a popular recreation

Friday, February 06, 2004


Also spelled �Meerkat, � common name for certain carnivores of the civet family (Viverridae): the suricate (q.v.) and various mongoose (q.v.) species.

Thursday, February 05, 2004

Australian Alps

Mountain mass, a segment of the Great Dividing Range (Eastern Uplands), occupying the southeasternmost corner of Australia, in eastern Victoria and southeastern New South Wales. In a more local sense, the term denotes the ranges on the states' border forming the divide between the watersheds of the Murray River system, flowing west, and the Snowy and other streams flowing

Wednesday, February 04, 2004

Xerox Corporation

The company was founded in 1906 as Haloid Company, changed its name to Haloid Xerox Company in 1958, and to Xerox Corporation in 1961. In 1960 Xerox first marketed the 914 xerographic copier; the process, which made photographic copies onto plain, uncoated paper, had been known