Tuesday, March 30, 2004

China, Prelude to the Han

From 403 BC onward seven kingdoms other than Chou constituted the ruling authorities in different parts of China, each of which was led by its own king or duke. In theory, the king of Chou, whose territory was by now greatly reduced, was recognized as possessing superior powers and moral overlordship over the other kingdoms, but practical administration lay in the hands

Monday, March 29, 2004

David Ap Gruffudd

David's grandfather, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, had made Gwynedd the centre of Welsh power. After failing to prevent his brother, Llywelyn ap

Sunday, March 28, 2004

Fabrizi, Nicola

As a young man, Fabrizi helped plan and execute the 1831 Milan rising against the Austrians. Unsuccessful in his attempt to revive the revolution in Modena, he was forced to flee but was captured by the Austrians and

Saturday, March 27, 2004


The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. The word journalism was originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, but with the advent of radio

Friday, March 26, 2004

Nahavand, Battle Of

At Nahavand some 30,000 Arab troops, under the command of Nu'man, attacked a Sasanian army alleged to number 150,000 men. The Sasanian troops, commanded

Thursday, March 25, 2004

Vietnam, Transportation

The topography of Vietnam renders land transportation between the north and the south difficult, with traffic limited to the narrow coastal corridor. Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are connected by rail and highway through this corridor. The nation's road network is extensive but in generally poor condition. The two large deltas, where most of the population is concentrated,

Wednesday, March 24, 2004


Two-wheeled vehicle drawn by a draft animal, used throughout recorded history by numerous societies for the transportation of freight, agricultural produce, refuse, and people. The cart, usually drawn by a single animal, is known to have been in use by the Greeks and the Assyrians by 1800 BC (although it is generally assumed that such vehicles could have been used as early as

Tuesday, March 23, 2004

Kirkwood, James

As the son of silent film stars Lila Lee

Monday, March 22, 2004

Cade, Jack

Cade was living in Sussex when, in 1449, he was accused of murdering a woman. He fled to France

Sunday, March 21, 2004

Strange Particle

Subatomic particle, either a meson or baryon, that contains a strange quark (q.v.).

Saturday, March 20, 2004

Maccready, Paul Beattie

MacCready was a national champion model-plane builder in the 1930s and received his pilot's license at the age of 16. He graduated with a B.S. degree in physics from

Friday, March 19, 2004

Toynbee Hall

Pioneering social settlement in the East End of London. It was founded on Commercial Street, Whitechapel (now in Tower Hamlets), in 1884 by the canon Samuel Augustus Barnett and named for the 19th-century English social reformer Arnold Toynbee. During his early years at St. Jude's Church, Barnett invited members of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge to the impoverished

Thursday, March 18, 2004

Macdonald, Flora

Scottish Jacobite heroine who helped Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, the Stuart claimant to the British throne, to escape from Scotland after his defeat in the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 - 46. The daughter of Ranald Macdonald, a tacksman or farmer of Milton in the island of South Uist (Hebrides),

Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Wang Fu-chih

Born and educated during the last years of the Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644), Wang was an ardent patriot who bitterly resisted the invasion of China by the Manchu tribes

Tuesday, March 16, 2004

21-centimetre Radiation

Electromagnetic radiation of radio wavelength emitted by cold, neutral, interstellar hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atom is composed of a positively charged particle, the proton, and a negatively charged particle, the electron. These particles can be considered as spinning around their own axes of rotation. When the spins of the two particles are antiparallel, then

Monday, March 15, 2004


Antenor's bronze sculpture of the tyrannicides probably dates from about 510. In 480, when Xerxes I captured Athens,

Sunday, March 14, 2004


City, central Turkey. The city lies on the site of a Bronze Age settlement 100 miles (160 km) east of Ankara in a valley of the Ak Mountains, at an elevation of 4,360 feet (1,329 m). The main road between Sivas and Ankara passes through it, but the rail line bypasses it to the southwest, and the city functions primarily as a local market and administrative centre. Mohair, wool, grain, gum, and lead are

Saturday, March 13, 2004


Any of a group of small, short-lived proteins that are released by one cell to regulate the function of another cell, thereby serving as intercellular chemical messengers. Cytokines effect changes in cellular behaviour that are important in a number of physiological processes, including reproduction, growth and development, and injury repair. However, they are

Friday, March 12, 2004

Motor-vehicle Insurance

Liability insurance pays for

Thursday, March 11, 2004


Chronic neurological disorder characterized by sudden and recurrent seizures which are caused by excessive signaling of nerve cells in the brain. Seizures may include convulsions, momentary lapses of consciousness, strange movements or sensations in parts of the body, odd behaviours, and emotional disturbances. Epileptic seizures typically last one to two

Wednesday, March 10, 2004

Swabian Alp

German �Sw�bische Alb, � continuation of the Jura Mountains in Baden-W�rttemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. The upland plateau extends approximately 100 miles (160 km) from the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) to the W�rnitz River at an average elevation of about 2,300 feet (700 m). The plateau rises in a steep northwestern scarp some 1,300 feet (400 m) above the valleys of the Neckar, Rems, and Fils rivers to its highest

Tuesday, March 09, 2004

Jordan, Relief and drainage

The desert is mostly within the Syrian (or North Arabian) Desert and occupies the eastern and southern parts of the country, comprising more than four-fifths of its territory.

Monday, March 08, 2004

Line-and-wash Drawing

Also called �Pen-and-wash Drawing, � in the visual arts, a drawing marked out by pen or some similar instrument and then tinted with diluted ink or watercolour. In 13th-century China, artists used transparent ink washes to create delicate atmospheric effects. The line-and-wash technique was practiced in Europe from the Renaissance, and in the early 15th century Cennino Cennini gave detailed instructions

Sunday, March 07, 2004


In Slavic religion, all the dead ancestors of a family, the rites that are performed in their memory, and the day on which those rites are performed. Dziady take place three or four times a year; though the dates vary in different localities, dziady are generally celebrated in the winter before the beginning of Advent and in the spring on the Sunday of Doubting Thomas.

Saturday, March 06, 2004

Chapelain, Jean

Chapelain's approach was a challenge to others of his day who appealed in doctrinaire fashion to classical Greek authorities. His critical views were advanced primarily in short articles and monographs and in his voluminous correspondence.

Friday, March 05, 2004


Gabon's economy has more links with European and American markets than with those in neighbouring states (with the exception of Cameroon) or elsewhere in Africa. The economy shares some of the characteristics of those of other tropical African states: strong links with the former colonial ruler, a large degree of foreign investment and control, dependence on foreign

Thursday, March 04, 2004

Szechwan Basin

Wade - Giles romanization �Ssu-ch'uan P'en-ti, �Pinyin �Sichuan Pendii, �also called �Red Basin, � basin comprising the greater part of eastern Szechwan Province (sheng), southwest China. It is surrounded by high mountains, including the Tsinghai - Tibet Plateau on the south, the Yunnan - Kweichow Plateau on the south, Wu Shan (mountains) on the east, and the Ta-pa Shan on the north, which protect the interior from temperature extremes. The basin covers 88,600 sq mi (229,500 sq km) of red-brick

Wednesday, March 03, 2004

Guadalupe, Basilica Of

Officially �Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe�, Spanish �Bas�lica de Guadalupe�, or �Bas�lica de Nuestra Se�ora de Guadalupe� Roman Catholic church that is the chief religious centre of Mexico, located in Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, a northern neighbourhood of Mexico City. The church was erected near the spot where two apparitions of the Virgin are said to have appeared to an Indian convert named Juan Diego in December 1531 and commanded that a church be built. The second apparition resulted

Tuesday, March 02, 2004


City, seat (1878) of Taylor county, northern West Virginia, U.S., on the Tygart Valley River, north of Tygart Lake. Settled in 1852 by construction crews of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, it is thought to be named for the �graftin' on� (junction) point for branch rail lines. It was chartered in 1856. During the American Civil War it was a key rail centre and was occupied by both Confederate and

Monday, March 01, 2004


In physics, the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another caused by its change in speed. For example, waves in deep water travel faster than in shallow; if an ocean wave approaches a beach obliquely, the part of the wave farther from the beach will move faster than that closer in, and so the wave will swing around until it moves in a direction perpendicular