Friday, April 30, 2004

Biblical Literature, The fall of Judah

The southern kingdom of Judah, under the Davidic monarchy, was able to last about 135 years longer, often only as a weak vassal state. Hezekiah (reigned c. 715 - c. 687), with the advice of the prophet Isaiah, managed to avoid conflict with or outlast a siege of the Assyrians. Hezekiah was succeeded by his son Manasseh, an apostate king who stilled any prophetic outcries, reintroduced Canaanite

Thursday, April 29, 2004


At first called Oneida, the city originated in 1887 as a railroad construction camp and in the 1890s grew to become one of

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

Palomino De Castro Y Velasco

After study at the University of C�rdoba, Palomino was a student of the painter Valdes Leal and later Alfaro. In 1688 Palomino was appointed court painter and continued to concentrate on easel work until 1699. Thereafter he assisted Luca Giordano in the fresco

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Arzamas Society

Russian literary circle that flourished in 1815 - 18 and was formed for the semiserious purpose of ridiculing the conservative �Lovers of the Russian Word,� a group dominated by the philologist Aleksandr S. Shishkov, who wished to keep the modern Russian language firmly tied to Old Church Slavonic. The Arzamas circle included the poets Vasily A. Zhukovsky, Konstantin Batyushkov

Monday, April 26, 2004

War Finance

Government efforts to finance major wars have frequently led to major changes in the tax system. In the United States, for example, the importance

Sunday, April 25, 2004


City, Nord-du-Qu�bec region, central Quebec province, Canada. It lies on the northwest shore of the Lac Dor� part of Chibougamau Lake. Gold and copper were discovered in the area by Peter McKenzie in 1903, but his and several subsequent attempts at mining the ore failed because of the region's remoteness. Finally, in the late 1940s, the provincial government began building a road

Saturday, April 24, 2004


Extinct genus of mammallike reptiles found as fossils in rocks of Permian age (286 to 245 million years ago) in southern Africa. Moschops, which is representative of a group of mammallike reptiles (see therapsid) that became adapted to a diet of plant food, was about 2.6 m (8 feet) long. The body was massive; the skull was high and shortened front to back. Numerous chisel-edged teeth suitable

Friday, April 23, 2004


International insurance is surveyed in Paul P. Rogers, Bruno Sch�nfelder, and Ehrenfried Sch�tte, Insurance in Socialist East Europe (1988); Bernard Wasow and Raymond D. Hill (eds.), The Insurance Industry in Economic Development (1986); Robert M. Crowe (ed.), Insurance in the World's Economies (1982); Michael E. Hogue and Douglas G. Olson (eds.), World Insurance Outlook (1982); Wenlee Ting, Multinational Risk Assessment and Management: Strategies for Investment and Marketing Decisions (1988); Werner Pfenningstorf and Donald G. Gifford, A Comparative Study of Liability Law and Compensation Schemes in Ten Countries and the United States (1991); and Norman A. Baglini, Global Risk Management: How U.S. International Corporations Manage Foreign Risks (1983).

Thursday, April 22, 2004

More, Sir Anthony

More studied his art under Jan van Scorel, and, after making a professional visit to Italy, he began to paint portraits in the style of Hans Holbein. His rise to eminence was rapid. In 1552 he was invited to Madrid by the emperor Charles V. In 1554 he

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Moravian Church

Protestant church founded in the 18th century but tracing its origin to the Unitas Fratrum (�Unity of Brethren�) of the 15th-century Hussite movement in Bohemia and Moravia.

Tuesday, April 20, 2004

Arts, Native American, Wind instruments: aerophones

In North America, flutes are limited to courtship, except for a whistle in an Iroquois medicine rite and in a gens (kinship-group) ceremony of the Meskwaki. In Mexico and southward, wind instruments provide colour and symbolic significance. At least two dances feature a one-man drummer-flutist who holds a flute in his left hand and plays a drum with his right. These are

Monday, April 19, 2004

Alexander I, Saint

Fifth pope after St. Peter and successor to St. Evaristus. His 10-year rule (105 - 115 or 109 - 119) is attested by Pope St. Eusebius (309/310). Some Catholic writers ascribe to him the introduction of holy water and the custom of mixing sacramental wine with water, and he may have made additions to the liturgy. It is believed he suffered martyrdom, possibly by decapitation, under the

Sunday, April 18, 2004


Any of the Roman historians prior to Livy (1st century BC - 1st century AD) who drew up the conventional history of Rome from the foundation of the city. For their sources early Roman historians relied for the most part on the annual tabulae pontificum, or annales, which after 300 BC contained regular records of magistrates' names and public events of religious significance. The early

Saturday, April 17, 2004

China, A land revolution

One reason for Communist success was the social revolution in rural China. The CCP was now unrestrained by the multiclass alliance of the United Front period. In the middle of 1946, as civil war became more certain, the party leaders launched a land revolution. They saw land redistribution as an integral part of the larger struggle; by encouraging peasants to seize the

Friday, April 16, 2004

Johansson, Christian

Johansson studied at the Royal Swedish Ballet School and in Copenhagen with August Bournonville, who was most responsible for establishing the traditions of the Royal Danish

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Felsic Rock

Igneous rock dominated by the light-coloured, silicon- and aluminum-rich minerals feldspar and quartz (qq.v.). The presence of these minerals gives felsic rock its characteristic light gray colour. The silica (SiO2) content of felsic rock is greater than about 60 percent by weight. Slight colour variations result from the presence of small amounts of mafic minerals (i.e., dark

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Durrell, Gerald Malcolm

British naturalist (b. Jan. 7, 1925, Jamshedpur, India--d. Jan. 30, 1995, St. Helier, Jersey), gained international stature among conservationists for his pioneering yet sometimes controversial role in preserving and breeding endangered species by housing them in zoos with the intention of eventually returning them to the wild. He was also a prolific author, producing more than 35 amusing

Tuesday, April 13, 2004


(Latin oraculum from orare, �to pray,� or �to speak�), divine communication delivered in response to a petitioner's request; also, the seat of prophecy itself. Oracles were a branch of divination but differed from the casual pronouncements of augurs by being associated with a definite person or place. For example, the oracles of Zeus originated at Dodona, Olympia, or Siwa; those

Monday, April 12, 2004


A fulling mill recorded in 1311 indicates the early importance of the manufacture of wool products. In the late 17th century the fine worsted trade followed. With

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Sardou, Victorien

Playwright who, with �mile Augier and Alexandre Dumas fils, dominated the French stage in the late 19th century and is still remembered as a craftsman of bourgeois drama of a type belittled by George Bernard Shaw as �Sardoodledom.� His work Les Pattes de mouche (1860; A Scrap of Paper) is a model of the well-made play. He relied heavily on theatrical devices

Saturday, April 10, 2004


Cabacera (county seat) and partido (county) of Gran Buenos Aires, Argentina, west of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia. The region of the present-day partido was colonized shortly after the second and permanent founding of Buenos Aires (1580). In 1730 an interim parish was founded near the estancia (landholding) of Francisco de Merlo. In the same year, Merlo founded

Friday, April 09, 2004


Also spelled �Goona� city, northwestern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. A road and rail junction, Guna is a major agricultural distribution centre. Cotton ginning, oilseed milling, and handloom weaving are important industries. The city has several colleges affiliated with Jiwaji University. Wheat, sorghum, legumes, corn (maize), and oilseeds are the major crops grown in the surrounding

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Caucasian Languages, Phonology

The sound systems of the Nakho-Dagestanian languages are diverse. There are up to five vowels (a, e, i, o, u); in some languages o is only now becoming an independent distinctive unit. Along with these cardinal vowels, in a number of languages there are also long and nasalized vowels (the Andi languages), pharyngealized vowels (in Udi), and labialized vowels (in Dido). In the Nakh

Wednesday, April 07, 2004

Afonso Vi

Afonso succeeded his father, John IV, in 1656, but his mother acted as regent until 1662. His reign saw a series of victories against Spain, including the battles of Ameixal (1663), Castelo Rodrigo (1664), and Montes Claros (1665), which in 1668 led to Spanish recognition

Tuesday, April 06, 2004


Also spelled �Ceboksary�, Chuvash �Shupashkar� city and capital, Chuvashia republic, Russia. It lies on the right bank of the middle Volga River, between Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. Although Cheboksary is known to have existed since the mid-15th century, and a fortress was built there in 1555, the town remained unimportant until the building of a rail link to Kanash in 1939. Thereafter it grew rapidly, with modern apartment blocks

Monday, April 05, 2004


In Greek mythology, a renowned and swift-footed huntress, probably a parallel and less important form of the goddess Artemis. Traditionally, she was the daughter of Schoeneus of Boeotia or of Iasus and Clymene of Arcadia. Her complex legend includes the following incidents: at her father's instance she was left to die at birth but was suckled by a she-bear; she took part

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Dead Sea

Arabic �Al-Bahr al-Mayyit�, Hebrew �Yam HaMelah�, also known as �Salt Sea� landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan, which lies some 1,300 feet (400 metres) below sea level - the lowest elevation and the lowest body of water on the surface of the Earth. Its eastern shore belongs to Jordan, and the southern half of its western shore belongs to Israel. The northern half of the western shore lies within the Palestinian West Bank and has been under Israeli

Saturday, April 03, 2004


Barangay villages sometimes grew to include 30 to

Friday, April 02, 2004

Bhave, Vinoba

Born of a high-caste Brahman family, he abandoned his high-school studies in 1916 to join Gandhi's ashram (ascetic community). Gandhi's teachings led Bhave to a life of austerity, dedicated

Thursday, April 01, 2004

Auckland, George Eden, Earl Of, 2nd Baron Auckland, 2nd Baron Auckland Of Auckland, Baron Eden Of Norwood

Succeeding to his father's baronies in 1814, Auckland, a member of the Whig Party, served as Board of Trade president and as first lord of the Admiralty before being selected in