Monday, May 31, 2004


Palladius took up the ascetical life himself, first at the Mount of Olives, the scene of Christ's Passion outside Jerusalem,

Sunday, May 30, 2004


Film-making process in which a motion picture is projected on a screen, with the width of the image two and a half times its height. The French physicist Henri Chr�tien (1879 - 1956) invented the technique in the late 1920s by which a camera, with the addition of a special lens, can �squeeze� a wide picture onto standard 35-millimetre film. Then, by the use of a special projection lens, the image

Saturday, May 29, 2004


Developments in modern medical science have made it possible to detect morbid conditions before a person actually feels the effects of the condition. Examples are many: they include certain forms of cancer; high blood pressure; heart and lung disease; various familial and congenital conditions; disorders of metabolism, like diabetes; and acquired immune deficiency

Friday, May 28, 2004

Halide Mineral

Compositionally and structurally, three broad categories of halide minerals are recognized; these categories, which are

Thursday, May 27, 2004

Port Hawkesbury

Town, Inverness county, northeastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It lies along the Strait of Canso, at the southern end of Cape Breton Island, 36 miles (58 km) east of Antigonish. Originally called Ship Harbour, the town was renamed in 1860, possibly for Charles Jenkinson, Baron Hawkesbury (1729 - 1808). It was a transportation hub, serving as the island terminus for the rail and highway ferries to the

Wednesday, May 26, 2004

Mercury Lamp

Electric discharge lamp (q.v.) in which light is emitted by electrically excited atoms of vapourized mercury.

Tuesday, May 25, 2004


In the 4th and 3rd centuries BC Yang-chou was a fief known as Kuang-ling in the state of Ch'u. After the Ch'in unification of the empire in 221 BC, it became the seat of a county. Under the Han dynasty (206 BC - AD 220), it was the seat

Monday, May 24, 2004


Town, central Turkey, on the Ankara-Kayseri railway near the Kizil River. Formerly a village, it owes its rapid rise in population mainly to the establishment of steel mills in the 1950s. These works, among the largest in the country, specialize in high-quality alloy steel and machinery. In the 1960s chemical plants were added. Electricity is provided by a generating plant that is

Sunday, May 23, 2004


Plural �Byliny, � traditional form of Old Russian and Russian heroic narrative poetry transmitted orally, still a creative tradition in the 20th century. The oldest byliny belong to a cycle dealing with the golden age of Kievan Rus in the 10th - 12th century. They centre on the deeds of Prince Vladimir I and his court. One of the favourite heroes is the independent Cossack Ilya of Murom, who defended

Saturday, May 22, 2004

Lowe, Sir Hudson

Lowe held several important commands in the war with France from 1793. He was knighted in 1814. He arrived on the island of St. Helena, Napoleon's last place of exile, in April 1816. Many persons,

Friday, May 21, 2004

Earth Sciences

The origins of the Earth sciences lie in the myths and legends of the distant past. The creation story, which can be traced to a Babylonian epic of the 22nd century BC and which is told in the first chapter of Genesis, has proved most influential. The story is cast in the form of Earth history and thus was readily accepted as an embodiment of scientific as well as of theological

Thursday, May 20, 2004


Group of buildings housing a monastery or a convent, centred on an abbey church or a cathedral and under the direction of an abbot or an abbess. In this sense, an abbey consists of a complex of buildings serving the needs of a self-contained religious community. The term abbey is also used loosely to refer to priories, smaller monasteries under a prior. In England, since

Wednesday, May 19, 2004

Shimabara Rebellion

The revolt began as a result of dissatisfaction with the heavy taxation and abuses of local officials on the Shimabara Peninsula and the Amakusa-retto Islands.

Tuesday, May 18, 2004

Arts, Central Asian, Neolithic and Metal Age cultures

Many Neolithic (New Stone Age) sites were discovered in what was formerly Soviet Central Asia, and the number of Bronze Age sites is even higher. The majority were found on the middle reaches of the Yenisey River, especially in the Minusinsk Basin, where metallurgy developed early. They testify to the existence of three main, basically successive, yet often overlapping

Monday, May 17, 2004

Painting, Western, Late Gothic

The key to much 15th-century painting in northern Europe lies in the Low Countries. The influence of Paris and Dijon decreased, partly because of the renewal of the Hundred Years' War between England and France and partly because of the removal of the Burgundian court, after the mid-1420s, from Dijon to Brussels, which subsequently became the centre of an extensive court

Sunday, May 16, 2004


Kaahumanu was of distinguished parentage, her mother having been married to the late king of Maui. Early in life she was betrothed to Kamehameha I, whom her father had served as counselor. They married and had a stormy but enduring relationship. She supported

Saturday, May 15, 2004


Mercury's orbit is inside the orbit of the Earth, and this creates two important astronomical effects. First, Mercury is never more than 27�45� of angle away from the Sun and is thus seen as a �morning� star just before sunrise or an �evening� star just after sunset. Second, Mercury exhibits

Friday, May 14, 2004

China, Phase one

As never before in modern times, the Chinese united themselves against a foreign enemy. China's standing armies in 1937 numbered some 1,700,000 men, with 500,000 in reserve. Japan's naval and air superiority were unquestioned. But Japan could not commit its full strength to campaigns in China; the main concern of the Japanese Army was the Soviet Union, while for the Japanese Navy it was the

Thursday, May 13, 2004

Pius I, Saint

Pius was a slave, according to his supposed brother, the apostolic father Hermas. As pope, Pius combatted Gnosticism - a religious movement teaching that matter is evil and that emancipation comes through spiritual truth attained only by revelatory esoteric knowledge - and the Marcionites, followers of a heretical

Wednesday, May 12, 2004


During the period of Uzziah's

Tuesday, May 11, 2004


Member of the British Empire, member of a British order of knighthood, though this rank does not confer knighthood. See British Empire, The Most Excellent Order of the.

Monday, May 10, 2004

Mcmullen, Curtis

McMullen first

Sunday, May 09, 2004

Bothe, Walther

Bothe taught at the universities of Berlin (1920 - 31), Giessen (1931 - 34), and Heidelberg (1934 - 57). In 1925 he and Hans Geiger used two Geiger counters to gather data on the Compton

Saturday, May 08, 2004

Kuala Belait

Town, western Brunei. It lies along the Belait River near the South China Sea, west of Seria. It is the centre of an oil field that includes offshore wells. Kuala Belait is a river port on the coastal road that runs eastward to Seria and Bandar Seri Begawan, the national capital. A government vocational school supplies technical training in construction and engineering

Friday, May 07, 2004

Giusti, Giuseppe

Giusti was sporadically a law student in Pisa (1826 - 29 and 1832 - 34) and led an inconspicuous life until the Revolution

Thursday, May 06, 2004


Well-born and wealthy, Alcibiades was only a small boy when his father - who was in command of the Athenian army - was killed

Wednesday, May 05, 2004


The earliest cosmetics known to archaeologists were in use in Egypt in the fourth millennium BC, as evidenced by

Tuesday, May 04, 2004


The hazards of poor ventilation were not clearly understood until the early

Monday, May 03, 2004

Clarence, George Plantagenet, Duke Of

Soon after Edward IV became king in March 1461, George was made duke of Clarence, and in

Sunday, May 02, 2004

Art And Architecture, Oceanic, Aesthetics

Pacific languages seem to be deficient in terms to express appreciation of or reactions to art, apart from a few that designate the mastery of individual specialists. Little is understood, moreover, about the islanders' aesthetic concepts. Reactions to works of art seem to range from the pragmatic and rational in the secular realm to the violently emotional in the

Saturday, May 01, 2004

Burg, Yosef

Burg studied at the University of Berlin and in 1933 earned a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Leipzig. Ordained