Saturday, July 31, 2004


The original kudurrus were kept in temples, while clay copies were given to the landowners. On the stone were engraved the clauses of the contract, the images or symbols of

Friday, July 30, 2004

Biqa', Al-

Also spelled �Bekaa�, or �Beqaa�, classical �Coele Syria� broad valley of central Lebanon, extending in a northeast-southwest direction for 75 miles (120 km) along the Litani and Orontes rivers, between the Lebanon Mountains to the west and Anti-Lebanon Mountains to the east. The valley contains nearly half of Lebanon's arable land but is not as intensively farmed as the country's coastal plain because of less rainfall and a wider variation

Thursday, July 29, 2004

Ear, Human

Hearing is the process by which the ear transforms sound vibrations in the external environment into nerve impulses that are conveyed to the brain, where they are interpreted as sounds. Sounds are produced when vibrating objects, such as the plucked string of a guitar, produce pressure pulses of vibrating air molecules, better known as sound waves. The ear can distinguish

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Einem, Gottfried Von

The son of an Austrian military attach�, Einem was educated in Germany and England. He helped several people escape from Nazi Germany, and in 1938 he was arrested by the Gestapo and was imprisoned

Tuesday, July 27, 2004

Moscow Academic Art Theatre

Also called �(until 1939) Moscow Art Theatre, �Russian �Moscovsky Akademichesky Khudozhestvenny Teatr, or Moscovsky Khudozhestvenny Teatr, �abbreviation �Mkhat, � outstanding Russian theatre of theatrical naturalism founded in 1898 by two teachers of dramatic art, Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko (qq.v.). Its purpose was to establish a theatre of new art forms, with a fresh approach to its function. Sharing similar theatrical experience and interests, the cofounders met and it was agreed that Stanislavsky

Monday, July 26, 2004

Munch, Peter Rochegune

After a career as a historian of modern Europe, Munch entered the Danish Parliament in 1909 as a member of the Radical Party. In the same year he became minister

Sunday, July 25, 2004


Legendary British king and central character of William Shakespeare's King Lear. One of the most moving of Shakespeare's tragic figures, Lear grows in self-awareness as he diminishes in authority and loses his illusions. Lear at the outset presents the very picture of foolish egotism and is tricked out of what he has expected to be a carefree retirement by his own

Saturday, July 24, 2004


Long-necked harp lute of the Malinke people of western Africa. The instrument's body is composed of a long hardwood neck that passes through a calabash gourd resonator, itself covered by a leather soundboard. Twenty-one leather or nylon strings are attached to the top of the neck with leather tuning rings. The strings pass over a notched bridge (10 strings

Friday, July 23, 2004

California, Flag Of

In the Bear Flag Revolt of 1846, which occurred during the Mexican-American War, a group of American settlers in what was then the Mexican-ruled territory of California proclaimed independence and hoisted the original Bear Flag (June 14, 1846). The following month American naval forces seized control of the area, and the flag of the short-lived California Republic was replaced

Thursday, July 22, 2004

N�geli, Hans Franz

N�geli was captain of the Bernese forces in the campaign against the adventurer-robber baron Giangiacomo Medici, lord of Musso (1531) and during the occupation of the frontier of the canton of Valais in the second Kappel War (an intercantonal religious

Wednesday, July 21, 2004

Arnim, Bettina Von

Von Arnim was unconventional to the point of eccentricity; wayward, yet a loyal wife (she married Achim

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Abu Al-'abbas As-saffah

Islamic caliph (reigned 749 - 754), first of the 'Abbasid dynasty, which was to rule over eastern Islam for approximately the next 500 years. The 'Abbasids were descended from an uncle of Muhammad and were cousins to the ruling Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyads were weakened by decadence and an unclear line of succession, and they enjoyed little popular support, prompting the 'Abb

Monday, July 19, 2004

Referendum And Initiative

The referendum may be obligatory or optional. Under the obligatory type, a statute or constitution requires that certain classes of legislative action be referred to a popular vote for approval or rejection. For

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Olympic Mountains

Segment of the Pacific mountain system of western North America. They extend across the Olympic Peninsula south of the Juan de Fuca Strait and west of Puget Sound in northwestern Washington, U.S. The mountains began to form about 35 million years ago when the Juan de Fuca Plate collided with and was forced under (subducted) the North American Plate, scraping off vast quantities

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Alabama, Industry

Industrial development in Alabama has long been based on the iron and steel industry of Birmingham, the development of which was facilitated by accessible deposits of iron ore, coal, and limestone. Other minerals include the state's well-known white marble. Oil production in commercial quantities dates from 1944, and there are a number of wells in the coastal regions.

Friday, July 16, 2004

Owain Cyfeiliog

After ruling over the people of Powys from 1149 to 1195, Owain retired to the Cistercian monastery of Strata Marcella (Ystrad Marchell), which he had established in 1170. He died and was buried there, despite his previous excommunication (1188) for failing to support the Third Crusade.

Thursday, July 15, 2004

Equestrian Sports

In the 2001 U.S. high-handicap season, held in Palm Beach, Fla., from January to April, Outback, led by Argentine Adolfo Cambiaso, prevailed at the U.S. Open for the third straight year, and Boca Polo triumphed in the Gold Cup in Boca Raton, Fla. Peter Brant's White Birch, led by Mariano Aguerre and Carlos Gracida, won the Sterling Cup and the Gold Cup of the Americas. In the summer season,

Wednesday, July 14, 2004


Judet (county), southeastern Romania, occupying an area of 2,344 square miles (6,072 square km). The Buzau mountain range, part of the Eastern Carpathians and the sub-Carpathian mountains, lies in the west, rising above settlement areas in the valleys and lowlands. The Buzau River and its tributaries drain eastward. Buzau city, the county capital, has been an economic centre with ties to

Tuesday, July 13, 2004

Christian Viii

While still crown prince of Denmark and recent stadtholder (governor) of Norway, Christian accepted election as king of Norway in 1814 by the Norwegian independence faction, which refused to recognize the cession of Norway

Monday, July 12, 2004


Formerly �Trengganu, � traditional region of northeastern West Malaysia (Malaya), bounded by those of Kelantan (north and northwest) and Pahang (south and southwest). It has a 200-mile- (320-kilometre-) long coastline along the South China Sea (east). Terengganu is mentioned in 1365 as a vassal of the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit. The sultanate of Terengganu, ruled by members of the same family since 1701, was under

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Epistemology, From scientific theology to secular science

For most of the Middle Ages there was no split between theology and science (scientia). Science was knowledge that was deduced from self-evident principles, and theology received its principles from the source of all principles, God. In every way, theology was superior to the other sciences, according to Thomas Aquinas. By the 14th century the ideas of science and theology

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Ord��ez, Antonio

Antonio Ord��ez was the son of Cayetano Ord��ez, called �Ni�o de la Palma,� who was the prototype for Pedro Romero, the matador in Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway is said to have ranked the son even higher than the father.

Friday, July 09, 2004

Ogot, Grace

One of the few well-known woman writers in Kenya, Ogot was the first woman to have fiction published by the East African Publishing House. Her stories - which appeared in European and African journals such as Black Orpheus and Transition and in collections

Thursday, July 08, 2004


Town, southern Myanmar (Burma). The town is a river port on the west bank of the main Irrawaddy distributary and is protected by flood-control embankments. It is linked with Yangon (Rangoon), 40 miles (65 km) east, by the Twante Canal and is the site of a diesel electric plant. The surrounding area occupies a largely swampy portion of the Irrawaddy River delta. It has a southern coastline

Wednesday, July 07, 2004

Sea Bass

Any of the numerous fishes of the family Serranidae (order Perciformes), most of which are marine and found in the shallower regions of warm and tropical seas. The family includes about 400 species, many of them well-known food and sport fishes. Although the term sea bass may be used for the family as a whole, the fishes themselves

Monday, July 05, 2004

Apponyi, Albert, Gr�f (count)

Born into an ancient and famous family, he was the son of Count Gy�rgy Apponyi, who was leader of the Progressive Conservatives and chancellor from 1846 to 1848. Entering the Hungarian Parliament in 1872, Apponyi remained

Sunday, July 04, 2004


A castle was built in Sosnowiec in

Saturday, July 03, 2004

Encyclopaedia, The Arab world

The early encyclopaedias written in Arabic can be roughly divided into two classes: those designed for people who wished to be well informed and to make full use of their cultural heritage, and those for the rapidly growing number of official administrators. The latter type of encyclopaedia originated when the Arabs established their rule through so many parts

Friday, July 02, 2004


The discipline dealing with the ethical implications of both biological research and the applications of that research, especially in medicine. The first bioethics study institute, the Hastings Center, was established in June 1969 and is now located in Briarcliff Manor, N.Y., U.S. In 1971 Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., established The Joseph and Rose Kennedy Institute

Thursday, July 01, 2004

Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl Of, Baron Of Raby

Leading adviser of England's King Charles I. His attempt to consolidate the sovereign power of the king led to his impeachment and execution by Parliament.