Tuesday, August 31, 2004


The Areopagite Council probably began as the king's advisers. Early in the Archaic period it exercised a general and ill-defined authority until the publication of Draco's Code of Law (c. 621). Membership continued

Monday, August 30, 2004


Irish �curragh� primitive, light, bowl-shaped boat with a frame of woven grasses, reeds, or saplings covered with hides. Those still used, in Wales and on the coasts of Ireland, usually have a canvas and tar covering. American Indians used the similar bullboat, covered with buffalo hides, on the Missouri River, and the corita, often sealed with bitumen, on the Colorado.

Sunday, August 29, 2004


City and metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester, northwestern England. Most of the city, including the historic core, is in the historic county of Lancashire, but it includes an area south of the River Mersey in the historic county of Cheshire. Manchester is the nucleus of the largest metropolitan area in the north of England, and it

Saturday, August 28, 2004

Wells, Emmeline Blanche Woodward

Emmeline Woodward followed her widowed mother in converting to Mormonism in 1842. She moved with her first husband to the Mormon settlement of Nauvoo, Illinois,

Friday, August 27, 2004


Acoustical device for reinforcing sound, as the sounding board of a piano, the �belly� of a stringed instrument, the air mass of an organ pipe, and the throat, nose, and mouth cavities of a vocal animal. In addition to augmenting acoustic power, resonators may also, by altering relative intensities of overtones, change the quality of a tone. See also soundboard. The Helmholtz

Thursday, August 26, 2004

Biblical Literature, The Ketuvim

That the formation of the Ketuvim as a corpus was not completed until a very late date is evidenced by the absence of a fixed name, or indeed any real name, for the third division of Scripture. Ben Sira refers to �the other books of our fathers,� �the rest of the books�; Philo speaks simply of �other writings� and Josephus of �the remaining books.� A widespread practice of entitling

Wednesday, August 25, 2004

Hutchinson, Anne

Anne Marbury was the daughter of a silenced clergyman and grew up in an atmosphere of learning. She married William Hutchinson, a merchant, in 1612, and in 1634 they migrated to Massachusetts

Tuesday, August 24, 2004


(Dy), chemical element, rare-earth metal of transition Group IIIb of the periodic table. A relatively hard and very reactive metal, it is oxidized by air and by water. Its high melting point and ability to absorb neutrons make it useful in control rods for nuclear reactors. Its compounds have been used for making laser materials, as components in some electronic equipment,

Monday, August 23, 2004

Fellenberg, Philipp Emanuel Von

In 1799 Fellenberg purchased the estate of Hofwil, where he founded a school combining manual training and agricultural and academic instruction. His social aim, to be achieved through education, was to try to raise the living conditions of the poor and to weld them and the upper classes together.

Sunday, August 22, 2004

Allston, Robert (francis Withers)

Rice planter and governor of South Carolina whose papers, South Carolina Rice Plantation, provide important agricultural, political, and social information about the pre-Civil War South. By scientifically draining and reclaiming swamps in his state, he developed one of the last great rice plantations in the Atlantic

Saturday, August 21, 2004


City, seat (1826) of McDonough county, western Illinois, U.S., on the east fork of the La Moine River. Settled by New Englanders in 1829 and originally called Washington, it was laid out (1830) and renamed after General Alexander Macomb, an officer in the War of 1812. The city is the site of Western Illinois University (founded there as a normal school in 1899). The economy is based on light manufacturing

Friday, August 20, 2004

Interior Design, Modes of composition

It must be emphasized that there are many different moods, or modes of composition, that are possible in interior design. The recognition of this fact makes it difficult to apply valid critical criteria to these modes, since many of them are intensely personal. What may appear to be picturesque to one person might be ugly or cluttered to another. Each person brings

Thursday, August 19, 2004

Hamid Dynasty

Turkmen dynasty (c. 1300 - 1423) that ruled in southwestern Anatolia. It was founded by Felekuddin D�ndar, whose father, Ilyas, was a frontier ruler under the Seljuqs and who named it after his grandfather; D�ndar governed the Hamid principality jointly with his brother Yunus, with two capitals, one at Egridir and one at Antalya (Attalia). D�ndar was defeated and killed (1324) by Demirtas, the

Wednesday, August 18, 2004

Norfolk, Thomas Of Brotherton, Earl Of

He was created Earl of Norfolk in 1312 and was given vast lands in England, Wales, and Ireland; Edward II further distinguished him by creating him marshal of England. However, although he at first sided with the king, he was one of the first

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

Florencio Varela

The partido of Florencio

Monday, August 16, 2004

Baburen, Dirck Van

After studying painting with a portraitist and history painter in Utrecht, Baburen traveled to Rome about 1612. His most important Italian commission was the decoration of a chapel in the

Sunday, August 15, 2004


In logic, the subject or predicate of a categorical proposition (q.v.), or statement. Aristotle so used the Greek word horos (�limit�), apparently by an analogy between the terms of a proportion and those of a syllogism. Terminus is the Latin translation of this word, used, for example, by the 5th-century Roman philosopher Boethius. Hence in medieval logic the word came to be used

Saturday, August 14, 2004

La Matanza

Partido (political subdivision) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, Arg., directly southwest of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires province. The present-day partido was part of the Pago (country district) de las Conchas during the 17th and early 18th centuries. In 1730 the Pago de las Conchas was divided into four rural settlement areas, one of which was the Pago de la Matanza. The

Friday, August 13, 2004

Biblical Literature, Ruth

The Book of Ruth is a beautiful short story about a number of good people, particularly the Moabite great-grandmother of David. Though events are set in the time of the judges, linguistic and other features suggest that the present form dates from post-exilic times. But it gives the impression of being based on an ancient tradition, perhaps on written source. It was certainly

Thursday, August 12, 2004

Bahrain, Settlement patterns

The majority of the population now dwells in towns, but in the north and northwest of the main island, where irrigation has long been carried out using artesian water, there are numerous small villages and isolated dwellings where horticulture is the way of life. This area has an aspect of great fertility, which contrasts starkly with the bare desert appearance of

Wednesday, August 11, 2004


Quintilian was born in northern Spain, but he was probably educated in Rome, where he afterward received some practical training from the leading orator of the day, Domitius

Tuesday, August 10, 2004


Mathematical instrument for plotting the integral of a graphically defined function. Two such instruments were invented independently about 1880 by the British physicist Sir Charles Vernon Boys and the Lithuanian mathematician Bruno Abdank Abakanowicz and were later modified and improved by others. The integraph draws the graph of the integral as the user traces

Monday, August 09, 2004


The first sails were most likely animal skins that were used to harness wind power for rafts or boats consisting of a single log. The next probable step was the use of woven reed mats stretched between poles. Depictions of cloth sails appear in predynastic (c. 3300 BC) Egyptian art, and

Sunday, August 08, 2004


Narcissus exercised great influence over Claudius and accumulated immense wealth. At first he allied himself with Claudius' third wife, Messalina Valeria, but fear that she and her lover, Gaius Silius, were conspiring

Saturday, August 07, 2004

Ear Disease, Perichondritis

Infection of the cartilage of the outer ear, called perichondritis, is unusual but may occur from injury or from swimming in polluted water. It is due to a particular microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is a greenish or brownish, musty or foul-smelling discharge from the outer-ear canal, while the affected outer ear becomes tender, dusky red, and two to three

Friday, August 06, 2004

Aranda, Pedro Pablo Abarca De Bolea, Conde De

Aranda came from the Aragonese nobility. After initially preparing for the priesthood, he entered the army, in which he became director of the artillery, introduced the Prussian system of drill in the Seven Years'

Thursday, August 05, 2004


Wade-Giles romanization �fu � type of Chinese bronze vessel used as a food container, it was produced largely from the middle Zhou period (c. 900 - c. 600 BC) through the Warring States period (475 - 221 BC). Rectangular in shape and divided into two parts, the vessel was supported by angular feet at each corner; the lid was almost a duplicate of the bottom (in principle much like the dui). In ancient documents the vessel was also

Wednesday, August 04, 2004

Anthony Iii Studite

A monk of the Studios monastery, Anthony became private secretary to Basil I, patriarch of Constantinople.

Tuesday, August 03, 2004


Town, southern C�te d'Ivoire. It is the chief collecting point for a forest region that sends coffee, cocoa, and timber (sipo and mahogany) to the coast for export and is a major market centre (rice, bananas, and yams) for the Bete and Gagu (Gagou) peoples. A paved road connects Gagnoa with Abidjan, the capital of C�te d'Ivoire. The town is the site of the government's first rural technical

Monday, August 02, 2004


Any member of a class of cyclic organic compounds containing two carbonyl groups, > C = O, either adjacent or separated by a vinylene group, -CH = CH-, in a six-membered unsaturated ring. In a few quinones, the carbonyl groups are located in different rings. The term quinone also denotes the specific compound para- (p-)benzoquinone (C6H4O2). The quinone structure

Sunday, August 01, 2004


Also called �Pogonophoran, � any of a group of marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Pogonophora. Pogonophorans live a sedentary life in long, protective tubes on seafloors throughout the world. The common name beardworm refers to the beardlike mass of pinnate (feather-like) tentacles borne at the anterior end of many species. An intestine, which forms in embryos, disappears as development