Wednesday, September 29, 2004


Also called �Fax, or Telefax, � in telecommunications, the transmission and reproduction of documents by wire or radio wave. Common fax machines are designed to scan printed textual and graphic material and then transmit the information through the telephone network to similar machines, where the documents are reproduced in close to their original form. Such machines, because of their low

Tuesday, September 28, 2004

Talhouni, Bahjat At-

Jordanian politician (b. 1913, Ma'an, vilayet of Syria, Ottoman Empire [now Ma'an, Jordan]--d. Jan. 30, 1994), was a loyal monarchist and close personal adviser to King Hussein of Jordan throughout a long career in public service; he was called upon to serve as prime minister four separate times between 1960 and 1970. Talhouni trained as a lawyer at the University of Damascus (LL.B.; 1936). He was appointed a judge

Monday, September 27, 2004


Papinian held high public office under the emperor Septimius Severus (reigned AD 193 - 211) and became vice president of the Consilium Principis,

Sunday, September 26, 2004


Flemish weavers first settled in Salford about 1360, and the town became an important centre of domestic textile production. Beginning in the late 18th century, the town's cottage

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Nguyen Tri Phuong

The son of a provincial administrator, Nguyen Tri Phuong entered the military service and distinguished himself by repelling the Siamese invasion

Friday, September 24, 2004

Rabin, Yitzhak

Israeli statesman and soldier who, as prime minister of Israel (1974 - 77, 1992 - 95), led his country toward peace with its Palestinian and Arab neighbours. He was chief of staff of Israel's armed forces during the Six-Day War (June 1967). Along with Shimon Peres, his foreign minister, and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) chairman

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Silica Mineral

Any of the forms of silicon dioxide (SiO2), including quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite, melanophlogite, lechatelierite, and chalcedony. Various kinds of silica minerals have been produced synthetically, among which are keatite and silicalite.

Wednesday, September 22, 2004


Delicate, scallop-shaped French tea cake often served with fruit or sherbet. In its preparation, flour, eggs, and sugar are beaten with a large proportion of butter, incorporating as much air as possible; then grated lemon rind and vanilla extract, and sometimes rum, are added. After baking in the customary 12-shell tin, the pastry is served plain or dusted with confectioner's

Tuesday, September 21, 2004


City, Clark county, southeastern Nevada, U.S., midway between Las Vegas and Boulder City. It was established in 1942 in the desert below Clark Mountain to provide housing for the employees of a government-constructed magnesium plant and was named for U.S. Senator Charles Belknap Henderson (1873 - 1954). Inactivated at the close of World War II when the plant was closed, the project was later

Monday, September 20, 2004

Sabatier, (louis-) Auguste

French Protestant theologian and educator who helped revolutionize biblical interpretation by applying methods of historical criticism and promoted the development of liberal theology and the Roman Catholic Modernist movement by his interpretation of Christian doctrine as the symbolism of religious feelings. Among his principal

Sunday, September 19, 2004

Ritchie, Michael

American film director (b. Nov. 28, 1938, Waukesha, Wis. - d. April 16, 2001, New York, N.Y.), directed a number of notable films, including The Candidate (1972), Prime Cut (1972), and Smile (1975). Ritchie achieved prominence with his first feature film, Downhill Racer (1969), which starred Robert Redford. Redford later played the title role in The Candidate. Among Ritchie's other films were The Bad News Bears (1976), Fletch (1985), and The

Saturday, September 18, 2004

Mesopotamia, History Of, Political fragmentation

It is probable that the definitive separation from Ur III came about through changing components of the population, from �Sumerians and Akkadians� to �Akkadians and Amorites.� An Old Babylonian liver omen states that �he of the steppes will enter, and chase out the one in the city.� This is indeed an abbreviated formula for an event that took place more than once: the usurpation

Friday, September 17, 2004

Haviland Crater

Also called �Brenham Crater� small, shallow impact crater in farmland near Haviland, Kiowa county, Kansas, U.S. The depression, some 50 feet (15 metres) in diameter, is oval in shape. The first meteorite fragment, now known to be of the strong-iron, or pallasite, type, was found at the site in 1885, but the shallow crater was not identified until 1925 (it is one of the smallest impact craters in the world). Meteoritic fragments,

Thursday, September 16, 2004

Cloete, Stuart

Cloete farmed in South Africa for several years (1926 - 35) before turning to writing. His first novel, Turning Wheels (1937), expressed a negative view of Boer life and dealt with interracial love affairs. It stimulated

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Eskimo-aleut Languages, Yupik

Yupik, a dialectal form meaning �real person,� includes five languages: Central Alaskan Yupik, spoken southward from Norton Sound; Pacific Yupik, commonly called Alutiiq, spoken from the Alaska Peninsula eastward to Prince William Sound; Naukanski Siberian Yupik, whose speakers were resettled southward from Cape Dezhnyov, the easternmost point of the Eurasian

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Kirkland, Lane

Kirkland graduated from the United States Merchant Marine Academy in 1942 and then served as an officer on American merchant ships throughout World War II. He settled in Washington,

Monday, September 13, 2004

Chad, Lake

French �Lac Tchad, � freshwater lake located in the Sahelian zone of west-central Africa at the conjunction of Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. It is situated in an interior basin formerly occupied by a much larger ancient sea that is sometimes called Mega-Chad. Lake Chad ranks as the fourth largest lake in Africa, though its surface area varies greatly. When the surface of the lake is

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Wu Ching

Pinyin �Wu Jing� (Chinese: �Five Classics�), five ancient Chinese books whose prestige is so great that in the fourfold classification of Chinese writings the ching (�classics�) are placed before shih (�history�), tzu (�philosophy�), and chi (�literature�). For 2,000 years these classics, all associated in some way with the name of the ancient sage Confucius (551 - 479 BC), were invoked as norms for Chinese society, law,

Saturday, September 11, 2004

Providence, Personal and impersonal forms

The cosmic order can appear in a personalized form, as, for example, the Egyptian goddess Maat; but this personification of the cosmic order is not general: the Iranian Asha, the Indian rta, and the Chinese Tao are all to a high degree impersonal. Maat represents truth and order; her domain includes not only the order of the nature, but also the social and ethical orders. She

Friday, September 10, 2004

New Bern

City, seat (1722) of Craven county, eastern North Carolina, U.S. It lies at the confluence of the Neuse and Trent Rivers, about 35 miles (55 km) northeast of Jacksonville. The second oldest town in North Carolina, New Bern was settled in 1710 by Freiherr (baron) Christophe von Graffenried of Bern, Switzerland. It was incorporated in 1723 after near destruction by Native Americans. Colonial North

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Sun Tzu

The book is traditionally attributed to Sun Tzu (personal name Sun Wu), a military strategist and general who served the state of Wu near the end of the Spring and Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC). It is more likely, however, that it was written early in the Warring

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Hohmann Orbit

The Hohmann orbit from Earth to Mars requires about 260 (Earth) days; about two years

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Florida Agricultural And Mechanical University

Byname �Florida A

Monday, September 06, 2004

Nicholas I

Heir presumptive to his uncle Danilo II, who was childless, Nicholas came to the throne in August 1860 after Danilo's assassination. Educated abroad in Paris and Trieste, he was throughout his reign faced with

Sunday, September 05, 2004


English �Lower Franconia� Regierungsbezirk (administrative district), northwestern corner of Bavaria Land (state), central Germany. Unterfranken is bordered by Thuringia Land to the northeast, the Regierungsbezirke of Oberfranken (Upper Franconia) and Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) to the east, Baden-W�rttemberg Land to the south, and Hesse Land to the west. The district occupies an area

Friday, September 03, 2004

Smith, Joseph

Smith grew up in western New York at a time of intense religious revivalism. He was a literate but unschooled lad from a large family, and his neighbours at Palmyra,

Thursday, September 02, 2004

Nebraska, Plant and animal life

A wide variety of grasses originally covered Nebraska's prairies, and the slopes of the river valleys were well covered with deciduous trees. Cottonwood, elm, and some oak and walnut are found along the bluffs of eastern Nebraska, while conifers grow in the Wild Cat and Pine Ridge highlands and the Niobrara valley. The Nebraska National Forest in west central Nebraska

Wednesday, September 01, 2004

Beresford, William Carr Beresford, Viscount, Baron Beresford Of Albuera And Dungarvan, Duke (duque) De Elvas

An illegitimate son of the 2nd Earl of Tyrone (afterward 1st Marquess of Waterford), Beresford entered the British army in 1785. As a brigadier general