Sunday, October 31, 2004

Ibn Zuhr

An intensely practical man, Ibn Zuhr disliked medical speculation; for that reason, he opposed the teachings of the Persian master physician Avicenna. In his Taysir fi al-mudawat wa al-tadbir (�Practical Manual of Treatments and Diet�), later translated

Saturday, October 30, 2004

Carinus

With the title of Caesar, he was sent by his father, the emperor Carus, to the army of the Rhine in 282. On his father's death in the summer of 283, Carinus became emperor in the West, his brother Numerian becoming emperor in the East. After a campaign on the Rhine, Carinus returned to Rome where,

Friday, October 29, 2004

Yama-no-kami

In Japanese popular religion, any of numerous gods of the mountains. These kami are of two kinds: (1) gods who rule over mountains and are venerated by hunters, woodcutters, and charcoal burners and (2) gods who rule over agriculture and are venerated by farmers. Chief among them is O-yama-tsumi-no-mikoto, born from the fire god who was cut into pieces by his angry father Izanagi

Thursday, October 28, 2004

Ancient Italic People

Any of the peoples diverse in origin, language, traditions, stage of development, and territorial extension who inhabited pre-Roman Italy, a region heavily influenced by neighbouring Greece, with its well-defined national characteristics, expansive vigour, and aesthetic and intellectual maturity. Italy attained a unified ethnolinguistic, political, and cultural

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Consciousness

A psychological condition defined by the English philosopher John Locke as �the perception of what passes in a man's own mind.�

Tuesday, October 26, 2004

Europium

(Eu), chemical element, rare-earth metal of transition Group IIIb of the periodic table; it is the least dense, softest, and most volatile member of the lanthanide series. The element was discovered (1896) by Eug�ne-Anatole Demar�ay and named for Europe. One of the least abundant rare earths, it occurs in minute amounts in many rare-earth minerals such as monazite and also in the

Monday, October 25, 2004

Alba

A Proven�al song of lament for lovers parting at dawn or of a watchman's warning to lovers at dawn. Albas were sung by the 11th- and 12th-century troubadours. Some sources consider the alba an early form of an aubade, though, unlike the alba, an aubade is usually a celebration of the dawn. Examples of albas for which music also survives include �Reis glorios� by Guiraut de Bornelh

Sunday, October 24, 2004

Action

In theoretical physics, an abstract quantity that describes the overall motion of a physical system. Motion, in physics, may be described from at least two points of view: the close-up view and the panoramic view. The close-up view involves an instant-by-instant charting of the behaviour of an object. The panoramic view, on the other hand, reveals not only a complete picture

Saturday, October 23, 2004

China, Philosophy and religion

Taoism and Buddhism by Ming times had declined into ill-organized popular religions, and what organization they had was regulated by the state. State espousal of Chu Hsi thought, and state repression of noted early Ming litterateurs, such as the poet Kao Ch'i and the thinker Fang Hsiao-ju, made for widespread philosophical conformity during the 15th century. This was

Friday, October 22, 2004

Lenin Peak

Formerly �Mount Kaufman, � highest summit (23,406 feet [7,134 m]) of the Trans-Alay Range on the frontier of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Once thought to be the highest mountain in what was then the Soviet Union, Lenin Peak was relegated to third place by the discovery in 1932 - 33 that Stalin Peak (called Communism Peak after 1962) was higher and by the finding in 1943 that Victory Peak was also higher. The peak is named after the Soviet

Thursday, October 21, 2004

Minden

City, North Rhine - Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies along the Weser River, near a narrow defile known as the Porta Westfalica where the river quits the mountains and enters the North German Plain. The emperor Charlemagne organized a military bishopric there in 800. The town struggled for independence from the bishopric, joined the Hanseatic League

Wednesday, October 20, 2004

Humanism, Fran�ois Rabelais (c. 1490 - 1533)

Rabelais ranks with Boccaccio as a founding father of Western realism. As a satirist and stylist (in his hands French prose became a free, poetic form), he influenced writers as important as Jonathan Swift, Laurence Sterne, and James Joyce and may be seen as a major precursor of modernism. His five books concerning the deeds of the giant princes Gargantua and

Tuesday, October 19, 2004

Toutin, Jean; And Toutin, Henri

Although the art of enamelwork was hundreds of years old, the elder Toutin developed a revolutionary new technique for enamel painting.

Monday, October 18, 2004

Eichler, August Wilhelm

Eichler studied mathematics and natural science at the University of Marburg (Ph.D., 1861). He then went to Munich, where he became a private assistant to the naturalist Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, with whom he edited Flora

Saturday, October 16, 2004

L�ger, Fernand

L�ger was born into a peasant family in a small town in Normandy. He served a two-year apprenticeship in an architect's

Friday, October 15, 2004

D.s.o.

Recipient of the Distinguished Service Order, a British military decoration. See Distinguished Service Order.

Thursday, October 14, 2004

Hysteresis

Lagging of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic material, such as iron, behind variations of the magnetizing field. When ferromagnetic materials are placed within a coil of wire carrying an electric current, the magnetizing field, or magnetic field strength H, caused by the current forces some or all of the atomic magnets in the material to align with the field. The

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

New Apostolic Church

Church organized in Germany in 1863 as the Universal Catholic Church, by members of the Catholic Apostolic Church who believed that new apostles must be appointed to replace deceased apostles and rule the church until the Second Coming of Christ. The present name was adopted in 1906. Its doctrines are similar to the parent church, but the new church was influenced by continental

Monday, October 11, 2004

Byzantine Rite

The Byzantine rite originated in the Greek city of Antioch (in modern southern Turkey), one of the earliest and most celebrated centres of Christianity; but it was developed and perfected in Byzantium,

Sunday, October 10, 2004

Zuni

Also spelled �Zu�i, � North American Indian pueblo in west-central New Mexico, on the Arizona border (see Pueblo Indians). The Zuni speak a language related to Penutian. Their origin and early history are unknown; their mythology pictures their ancestors as emerging from underground and wandering to their present location. When they were first encountered by whites, the Spaniards in

Saturday, October 09, 2004

Scandinavian Literature, The heroic sagas

The fantastic element was further developed in the fornaldar s�gur, literally �the sagas of antiquity,� whose heroes were supposed to have lived in Scandinavia and Germany before Iceland was settled. The best known, the V�lsunga saga (c. 1270), retold in prose stories from heroic lays of Sigurd, the Burgundians, and J�rmunrekr, and the Hr�lfs saga kraka (c. 1280 - 1350) incorporated ancient

Friday, October 08, 2004

Fuselage

Central portion of the body of an airplane, designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, and cargo. It varies greatly in design and size according to the function of the aircraft. In a jet fighter the fuselage consists of a cockpit large enough only for the controls and pilot, but in a jet airliner it includes a much larger cockpit as well as a cabin that has separate decks

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Christian Ii

After serving as viceroy in Norway (1502, 1506 - 12), Christian succeeded his father, John, king of Denmark and Norway, in 1513. He obtained office by agreeing to a royal charter that granted extensive privileges to the nobility,

Tuesday, October 05, 2004

Cyprus, Church Of

Also called �Orthodox Church Of Cyprus, � one of the oldest autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, churches of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Its independence, first recognized by the third ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431), was reaffirmed by the Council in Trullo (692) and was never lost, not even during the occupation of the island by the crusaders. Under the feudal French dynasty of the Lusignans (1191 - 1489) and

Monday, October 04, 2004

Anjala League

(1788 - 89), a conspiracy of Swedish and Finnish army officers that undermined the Swedish war effort in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788 - 90. Shortly after the outbreak of war, 113 officers in the Finnish town of Anjala dispatched a letter to Empress Catherine II the Great of Russia calling for peace on the basis of the pre-1743 status quo - one favourable to Sweden. Although this condition made Catherine's

Sunday, October 03, 2004

Niederbayern

English �Lower Bavaria� Regierungsbezirk (administrative district), east-central Bavaria Land (state), southeastern Germany. Niederbayern is bordered by the Czech Republic to the northeast, Austria to the southeast, and the Regierungsbezirke of Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) to the southwest and west and Oberpfalz (Upper Palatinate) to the north. Together with Oberbayern and Oberpfalz, the

Saturday, October 02, 2004

Abu Al-fida'

Abu al-Fida' was a descendant of Ayyub, the father of Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty that had been supplanted by the Mamluks in Egypt and elsewhere before his birth. In 1285 he accompanied his father and his cousin (prince of Hamah and a Mamluk client)

Friday, October 01, 2004

Kernel

(for symbol, see integration), both the kernel function, K(x, y), and g(x) are given, and f(x) is the function sought. As an example, in Abel's equation for the curve followed by a particle moving in a vertical plane under the influence of gravity, which takes the form of the integral