Monday, November 29, 2004


Medieval Russian principality from the 12th to the early 16th century. Ryazan became an independent princedom early in the 12th century under Yaroslav, the son of the grand prince Svyatoslav of Kiev. Its capital city was Old Ryazan on the Oka River, about 150 miles (240 km) southeast of Moscow. For the next century it was often in conflict with the principality of Vladimir, which was

Sunday, November 28, 2004

Strachey, (giles) Lytton

English biographer and critic who opened a new era of biographical writing at the close of World War I. Adopting an irreverent attitude to the past and especially to the monumental life-and-letters volumes of Victorian biography, Strachey proposed to write lives with �a brevity which excludes everything

Saturday, November 27, 2004

Teresa, Blessed Mother

The daughter

Friday, November 26, 2004

Augsburg Interim

Temporary doctrinal agreement between German Catholics and Protestants, proclaimed in May 1548 at the Diet of Augsburg (1547 - 48), which became imperial law on June 30, 1548. It was prepared and accepted at the insistence of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V, who hoped to establish temporary religious unity in Germany until differences could be worked out in a general council of the Catholic

Thursday, November 25, 2004

Zambezi River, Animal life

The tiger fish is one of the few species found both above and below the Victoria Falls. Pike is predominant in the upper course of the river, as are yellowfish and barbel. Bream are now common both above and below the falls. Crocodiles abound in the Zambezi, though they generally avoid stretches of fast-running water. Hippopotamuses are also found in the upper and lower

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


A maritime contract (now almost obsolete) by which the owner of a ship borrows money for equipping or repairing the vessel and, for a definite term, pledges the ship as security - it being stipulated that if the ship be lost in the specified voyage or period, by any of the perils enumerated, the lender shall lose his money. A similar contract creating a security interest

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Price, Nick

In 1982, 26-year-old Nick Price held a three-stroke lead with six holes left to play in one of golf's premier events, the British Open. But then he faltered, and Tom Watson beat him by one stroke. Watson, having also won the 1982 U.S. Open, became only the sixth player ever to win consecutive major tournaments. Twelve years would pass before that exclusive back-to-back club would admit another

Monday, November 22, 2004

Myanmar (burma)

Myanmar's ruling military junta in 1993 ignored calls from the U.S., the European

Sunday, November 21, 2004

San Francisco

City, northeastern C�rdoba provincia, north-central Argentina, on the border of Santa F� provincia at the northern edge of the Pampa. Founded in 1886 and given city status in 1915, it has been a railroad centre since the 19th century and is a commercial and manufacturing centre for an agricultural (grain and flax) and pastoral area. Light manufacturing is important, as are dairy

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Anthropology And Archaeology, Eastern Hemisphere.

The year 2002 yielded a number of stunning archaeological discoveries. A 50-cm (20-in)-long limestone ossuary, or box for storage of bones, bearing a text in Aramaic, was hailed as the first archaeological evidence for the historical Jesus. The ossuary, found near Jerusalem, was carved with a single line of text reading, �Ya'akov bar Yosef akhui diYeshua,� or �James, son of Joseph, brother

Friday, November 19, 2004

Libya, Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

Agriculture is limited by the environment and by shortages of labour. Only about 1 percent of the total land area is cultivated, mostly on the Al-Jifarah and Barce plains, and about one-tenth of that is irrigated. An additional 8 percent of the land is in pasture. Agricultural development by land reclamation and irrigation is a government priority. The largest projects

Thursday, November 18, 2004


Region and former administrative county, northeastern England, along the River Tees and the North Sea. The region comprises parts of the historic counties of Durham and Yorkshire to the north and south of the Tees, respectively. It is divided administratively into the following unitary authorities: Hartlepool, Stockton-on-Tees, Middlesbrough, and Redcar and

Wednesday, November 17, 2004

Anderson, Viv

Anderson began his professional football

Tuesday, November 16, 2004

Biblical Literature, The role of certain lesser judges

The third section relates the exploits of the various judges. Othniel, a member of the tribe of Caleb, delivered the erring Israelites from eight years of oppression by Cushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia. The king, however, was most likely an area ruler, rather than a king of the Mesopotamian Empire. Another judge, Ehud, a left-handed Benjamite, delivered Israel from

Monday, November 15, 2004

Vale Royal

Borough, administrative and historic county of Cheshire, England. It is named for a great Cistercian abbey built by Edward I near the present village of Whitegate. The borough is centred on the Cheshire salt field in the middle of the county. Its two main towns, Winsford and Northwich, were both founded on salt production; Northwich was important for salt as early as

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Wolf-rayet Star

Any of a class of extremely hot, white stars having peculiar spectra thought to indicate either great turbulence within the star or a steady, voluminous ejection of material. A typical Wolf-Rayet star is several times the diameter of the Sun and thousands of times more luminous. Only a few hundred are known, located mostly in the spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy. The

Saturday, November 13, 2004

Fable, Parable, And Allegory, Parable

Like fable, the parable also tells a simple story. But, whereas fables tend to personify animal characters - often giving the same impression as does an animated cartoon - the typical parable uses human agents. Parables generally show less interest in the storytelling and more in the analogy they draw between a particular instance of human behaviour (the true neighbourly

Friday, November 12, 2004


In early times, the tendency was to look upon the alien as an enemy and to treat him as a criminal or outlaw. Aristotle, probably reflecting a common view in the ancient world, saw non-Greeks as

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Earth Sciences, Geologic sciences

The development of the geologic sciences in the 20th century has been influenced by two major �revolutions.� The first involves dramatic technological advances that have resulted in vastly improved instrumentation, the prime examples being the many types of highly sophisticated computerized devices. The second is centred on the development of the plate tectonics

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Fabula Atellana

(Latin: �Atellan play�), the earliest native Italian farce, presumably rustic improvisational comedy featuring masked stock characters. The farces derived their name from the town of Atella in the Campania region of southern Italy and seem to have originated among Italians speaking the Oscan dialect. They became a popular entertainment in ancient republican and

Tuesday, November 09, 2004


Any of the aboriginal people of Hawaii, descendants of Polynesians who migrated to Hawaii in two waves: the first from the Marquesas Islands, probably about AD 400; the second from Tahiti in the 9th or 10th century. Numbering about 300,000 at the time of Captain James Cook's arrival at the islands in 1778, full-blooded Hawaiians numbered fewer than 10,000 in the late 20th century (though there are large

Monday, November 08, 2004

Arts, East Asian, Sculpture

Sculpture did not enjoy a great infusion of creativity during the Edo period. More obviously mannered and stylized interpretations of Buddhist deities and worthies were regularly produced. There were, of course, some sculptors of exceptional talent. Shoun Genkei (1648 - 1710) is renowned for his production (1688 - 95) of a set of 500 arhats (disciples of the Buddha) at Gohyaku Rakan Temple in

Sunday, November 07, 2004

Aselli, Gaspare

Aselli became professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Pavia and practiced at Milan. His discovery of the lacteals (lymph vessels that take up the end products of fat digestion from the intestine) occurred

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Deutsche Blumen

English �German flowers� in pottery, floral decoration consisting of naturalistically painted �German� (i.e., European) flowers appearing individually or in bouquets. Although Viennese potters had produced a type of naturalistic floral decoration about 1730, deutsche Blumen became popular only after they had appeared on Meissen porcelain, produced from about 1740. The flowers used to decorate

Friday, November 05, 2004


The alteration of behaviour as a result of individual experience. When an organism can perceive and change its behaviour, it is said to learn.

Thursday, November 04, 2004

Nitrogen Cycle

Circulation of nitrogen in various forms through nature. Nitrogen, a component of proteins and nucleic acids, is essential to life on Earth. Although 78 percent by volume of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas, this abundant reservoir exists in a form unusable by most organisms. Through a series of microbial transformations, however, nitrogen is made available to plants,

Wednesday, November 03, 2004


City, Talladega county, central Alabama, U.S. It is located at the southwestern corner of Talladega National Forest (eastern section) in the Coosa River valley, about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Birmingham. The area was visited by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1540 and was inhabited by the Creek until they were removed by the federal government in 1836. The arrival of the Anniston

Tuesday, November 02, 2004

Race, History

The history of race in science is discussed in Thomas F. Gossett, Race: The History of an Idea in America (1965); Elazar Barkan, The Retreat of Scientific Racism (1992); Nancy Stepan, The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800 - 1960 (1992).

Monday, November 01, 2004

Fish Owl

The brown fish owl (K. zeylonensis) ranges from the eastern Mediterranean to Taiwan and Japan. Pel's fishing owl (S.