Friday, December 31, 2004

Alaska, Tourism

Alaska has had an upsurge of tourism. Travelers arrive mainly by air or sea and can now cover large areas by airplane and road. The influx is partly the result of the 500-passenger, 100-car ferries that operate as the Alaska Marine Highway. One ferry system connects Kodiak with mainland Seward and the Alaska Railroad, another links Cordova and Valdez, and a third serves panhandle

Thursday, December 30, 2004

Cone, Claribel; And Cone, Etta

The Cone sisters, daughters of German immigrant parents, grew up in Baltimore, Maryland. Claribel

Wednesday, December 29, 2004


Any of 80 or more species of eels of the family Muraenidae. Moray eels occur in all tropical and subtropical seas, where they live in shallow water among reefs and rocks and hide in crevices. They differ from other eels in having small rounded gill openings and in generally lacking pectoral fins. Their skin is thick, smooth, and scaleless, while the mouth is wide and the jaws

Tuesday, December 28, 2004


Before his ordination at the

Monday, December 27, 2004

China, Ch'ing society

Chinese society continued to be highly stratified during the early Ch'ing. Hereditary status groups in the society ranged from the descendants of the Imperial line down to the �mean people� at the bottom of the social ladder. Many professions were hereditary: bannermen, brewers, dyers, doctors, navigators, and Taoist priests usually passed on their occupations to

Sunday, December 26, 2004

Rotimi, Ola

Rotimi was born to an Ijaw mother and a Yoruba father, and cultural diversity was a frequent theme in his work. Educated in Nigeria in Port Harcourt and Lagos, he traveled to the United States in 1959 to study at Boston University. After receiving a B.A. in fine arts in 1963, he attended the Yale School

Saturday, December 25, 2004


Megye (county), extreme northeastern Hungary, occupying an area of mainly lowland country traversed by many small river courses. Lying within the megye is the Ny�rs�g, a district of sandy soils and the site of Ny�regyh�za (q.v.), the megye seat. Crossed by the Tisza River system, the sandy terrain has been stabilized by planting fruit and other trees. Elsewhere in the megye

Friday, December 24, 2004


One of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England; i.e., that of the East Saxons. An area of early settlement, it probably originally included the territory of the modern county of Middlesex; London was its chief town. Essex sometimes had joint kings, and from 664 they were subject to the rulers of the midland kingdom of Mercia. From 825 Essex was controlled by Wessex, first as a subkingdom

Thursday, December 23, 2004


In physics, any of the subatomic particles that are built from quarks and thus react through the agency of the strong nuclear force. The hadrons embrace mesons (e.g., pions and kaons), baryons (e.g., protons, neutrons, and sigma particles), and their many resonances. All observed subatomic particles except bosons (e.g., photons, W particles, and Z particles) and leptons (e.g., electrons,

Wednesday, December 22, 2004


Arabic �Jazirat Al-'Arab (�Island of the Arabs�), � peninsular region, together with offshore islands, located in the extreme southwestern corner of Asia. The Arabian Peninsula is bounded by the Red Sea on the west and southwest, the Gulf of Aden on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south and southeast, and the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf (also called the Arabian Gulf) on the northeast. Geographically the peninsula

Tuesday, December 21, 2004


Town, Ondo state, southwestern Nigeria, at the southern edge of the Yoruba Hills (elevation 1,130 feet [344 m]) and at the intersection of roads from Akure, Kabba, Benin City, and Siluko. A major collecting point for cocoa, it also serves as a market centre (yams, cassava, corn [maize], rice, palm oil and kernels, pumpkins, okra). Cotton and teak are cultivated in the surrounding area, which was

Monday, December 20, 2004


The term catalysis was first used in 1835 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius to characterize phenomena observed by chemists in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Examples of catalysis, however, were known much

Sunday, December 19, 2004


Funerary temple of Ramses II (1279 - 13 BC), erected on the west bank of the Nile River at Thebes in Upper Egypt. The temple, famous for its 57-foot (17-metre) seated statue of Ramses II (of which only fragments are left), was dedicated to the god Amon and the deceased king. The walls of the Ramesseum, which is only about half preserved, are decorated with reliefs, including scenes depicting the

Saturday, December 18, 2004

�pernon, Jean-louis De Nogaret De La Valette, Duke (duc) D'

Of obscure nobility, La Valette rose to prominence as a favourite of Henry III, who created him duke and peer of France in 1582. He and Anne de Joyeuse acted virtually as prime ministers in the 1580s. His rapacity was notorious, but he also showed great political ability

Friday, December 17, 2004

Spotlight: Latin America's New Transportation Links

By 1998 the common market concept within Latin America, as exemplified by Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia joining as associate members), several bilateral trade agreements, and the rejuvenation of the Andean Community and the Central American Common Market, was contributing to a diminution of old geopolitical rivalries in

Thursday, December 16, 2004

Atat�rk, Kemal

Mustafa Kemal then embarked upon the reform of his country, his goal being to bring it into the 20th century. His instrument was the Republican People's Party, formed on Aug. 9, 1923, to replace the defense-of-rights associations. His program was embodied in the party's �Six Arrows�: republicanism, nationalism, populism, statism (state-owned and state-operated industrialization

Wednesday, December 15, 2004


Unarmed martial-arts discipline employing kicking, striking, and defensive blocking with arms and legs. Emphasis is on concentrating as much of the body's power as possible at the point and instant of impact. Striking surfaces include the hands (particularly the knuckles and the outer edge), ball of the foot, heel, forearm, knee, and elbow. All are toughened by practice

Tuesday, December 14, 2004

Sacred Kingship, The king as judge

From earliest times, in addition to other functions, the chief was the judge of his tribe; he personified the protection that the community provided for the individual. Providing for a balance of power in the community, mediating quarrels, and protecting individual rights, the chief or king was the lawgiver and the highest administrator for all community affairs.

Monday, December 13, 2004


Ornamental, openwork fabric formed by looping, interlacing, braiding (plaiting), or twisting threads. The dividing line between lace and embroidery, which is an ornamentation added to an already completed fabric, is not easy to draw; a number of laces, such as Limerick and filet lace, can be called forms of embroidery upon a more or less open fabric. On the other hand, fancy

Sunday, December 12, 2004


(Latin: Fishes), in astronomy, zodiacal constellation lying between Aries and Aquarius, at about 1 hour right ascension (the coordinate on the celestial sphere analogous to longitude on the Earth) and 15� north declination (angular distance north of the celestial equator). The vernal equinox, the point where the Sun's annual apparent path takes it north of the celestial

Saturday, December 11, 2004

Biblical Literature, The role of Samuel

The first section (chapters 1 - 15) begins with the story of Samuel's birth, after his mother Hannah (one of the two wives of the Ephraimite Elkanah) had prayed at the shrine at Shiloh, the centre of the tribal confederacy, for a son. She vowed that, if she bore a son, he would be dedicated to Yahweh for lifetime service as a Nazirite, as indicated by the words �and no razor shall touch

Friday, December 10, 2004


Officially �Republic Of Mauritius, � island country, the central independent island state of the Mascarene group, lying about 500 miles (800 km) east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. It is situated at latitude 20�18� S and longitude 57�36� E and extends 38 miles (61 km) from north to south and 29 miles (47 km) from east to west. Its outlying territories are Rodrigues Island, lying 344 miles (553 km) eastward, the Cargados Carajos Shoals, 250 miles (402 km) northeastward,

Thursday, December 09, 2004


Plucked stringed musical instrument that probably originated in Spain early in the 16th century, deriving from the guitarra latina, a late-medieval instrument with a waisted body and four strings. The early guitar was narrower and deeper than the modern guitar, with a less pronounced waist. It

Wednesday, December 08, 2004

Strasberg, Lee

Strasberg's family emigrated to the United States when he was seven,

Tuesday, December 07, 2004

Huggins, Sir William

Huggins built a private observatory at Tulse Hill, London, in 1856. From 1859 he was one of a number of astronomers who began to apply Robert

Monday, December 06, 2004

Dinaric Alps

Serbo-Croatian �Dinarsko Gorje�, or �Dinara Planina� southeastern division of the Eastern Alps, running parallel to the Dalmatian (Adriatic) coast from Trieste and Slovenia south to Albania. Bounded by the Soca (Italian Isonzo) and Sava rivers (north), the Drina River (south), the Kolubara, Ibar, and Sitnica rivers (east), and the Adriatic Sea (west), the Alps rise to 8,274 ft (2,522 m) in Bobotov Kuk of Durmitor. The coast is indented with numerous

Sunday, December 05, 2004


Phocion was a pupil of Plato and in later life a close friend of the Platonic philosopher Xenocrates. After serving Persia as a mercenary, he was drawn into Athens' efforts to remain

Saturday, December 04, 2004

Pacific Ocean, Minerals from seawater and alluvial deposits

Common salt (sodium chloride) is the most important mineral obtained directly from seawater. Mexico leads the Pacific nations in salt extraction from the sea, mostly by solar evaporation. Bromine extracted from seawater is used in the food, dye, pharmaceutical, and photo industries. The United States and Japan lead in its production among Pacific riparian nations.

Friday, December 03, 2004

Hexachloroplatinic Acid

Also called �Chloroplatinic Acid, � complex compound formed by dissolving platinum metal in aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) or in hydrochloric acid that contains chlorine. It is crystallized from the solution in the form of reddish brown deliquescent (moisture-absorbing) crystals with specific gravity 2.43 and melting point 60� C (140� F). It is the starting material from which most platinum

Thursday, December 02, 2004

Irish System

Penal method originated in the early 1850s by Sir Walter Crofton; it emphasized training and performance as the instruments of reform. The Irish system consisted of three phases: a period of solitary confinement; a period of congregate work, in which the prisoner advanced to higher levels by credits earned for industry and good behaviour; and, finally, a period in �intermediate

Wednesday, December 01, 2004

Barcelona, Archaeological Museum Of

In full� Archaeological Museum Of Barcelona And Institute Of Prehistory And Archaeology, �Spanish �Museo Arqueol�gica De Barcelona E Instituto De Prehistoria Y Arqueolog�a,� institution in Barcelona, Spain, notable for its collection of prehistoric objects and for its collection of ancient Greek and Roman art and examples illustrating Iberian archaeology. Exhibits include a scale model of a part of the excavation at Ampurias (Emporiae) and displays of Greek vases, glass, and sculpture. There is a fine statue of Asclepius of the 4th century