Monday, January 31, 2005

Poland, History Of, World War II

The Poles, fighting alone against the Wehrmacht's overwhelming might, particularly in air power and armour, were doomed. On September 17 the Red Army invaded Poland from the east, and on September 28 Hitler and Stalin agreed on a final partition, the Soviets taking eastern Galicia and lands east of the Bug River (i.e., more than half of the country, where the Poles constituted

Sunday, January 30, 2005


Town, regional county municipality (RCM) of C�te-Nord region, east-central Quebec province, Canada. It lies on the north bank of the St. Lawrence River, near the mouth of the Manicouagan River. Named after Napol�on-Alexandre Comeau, a local naturalist, it was founded in 1936 at the instigation of Robert R. McCormick, publisher of the Chicago Tribune, as a pulp and newsprint milling

Saturday, January 29, 2005

Redford, Robert

After years of drifting and studying art in both Europe and the United States, Redford enrolled at

Thursday, January 27, 2005


Creamy candy made with butter, sugar, milk, and usually chocolate, cooked together and beaten to a soft, smooth texture. Fudge may be thought of as having a consistency harder than that of fondant (q.v.) and softer than that of hard chocolate. According to most recipes, the ingredients of fudge are cooked to what is termed in kitchen parlance the soft ball stage, that point

Wednesday, January 26, 2005


To the west of the Federated States

Tuesday, January 25, 2005

Amp�re, Andr�-marie

Amp�re was a prodigy who mastered all mathematics then extant by the time he was 12 years old. He became a professor of physics and chemistry at Bourg-en-Bresse in 1801 and a professor of mathematics at the �cole Polytechnique in Paris in

Monday, January 24, 2005

Gamelin, Maurice(-gustave)

Gamelin graduated from the Saint-Cyr military academy in 1893 and ended World War I as a brigadier general in command of a division. He rose steadily after the war, becoming

Sunday, January 23, 2005

Schach, Rabbi Eliezer Menachem

Lithuanian-born Israeli Orthodox Jewish scholar and political leader (b. 1896?, Wabolnick [now Vabalninkas], Lithuania, Russian Empire - d. Nov. 2, 2001, Tel Aviv, Israel), as the spiritual leader of Israel's non-Zionist ultra-Orthodox political parties - Agudat Yisrael, Shas, and Degel Hatorah - wielded great influence on Israeli government policies. In 1940 Schach emigrated from Lithuania

Saturday, January 22, 2005

Ear, Human

A.J. Hudspeth, �How the Ear's Works Work,� Nature, 341(6241):397 - 404 (Oct. 5, 1989), gives an account of the role of hair cells in hearing. Further details are found in Lewis G. Tilney and Mary S. Tilney, �Actin Filaments, Stereocilia, and Hair Cells: How Cells Count and Measure,� Annual Review of Cell Biology, 8:257 - 274 (1992). As an accessible introduction to the clinical concerns of otology and audiology, John Ballantyne, M.C. Martin, and Antony Martin (eds.), Deafness, 5th ed. (1993), remains unsurpassed. For detailed, up-to-date treatments of other topics and problems considered in this section, the series Springer Handbook of Auditory Research is highly recommended, especially vol. 1, The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy, ed. by Douglas B. Webster, Arthur N. Popper, and Richard R. Fay (1992), vol. 2, The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neurophysiology, ed. by Arthur N. Popper and Richard R. Fay (1992), vol. 7, Clinical Aspects of Hearing, ed. by Thomas R. Van de Water, Arthur N. Popper, and Richard R. Fay (1996), and vol. 8, The Cochlea, ed. by Peter Dallos, Arthur N. Popper, and Richard R. Fay (1996). Information on the anatomy and physiology of the vestibular system and the disorders, peripheral and central, that can affect it may be found in the still-useful work by Ralph F. Naunton (ed.), The Vestibular System (1975).

Friday, January 21, 2005


An important rock-forming mineral, anhydrous calcium sulfate (CaSO4). It differs chemically from gypsum (to which it alters in humid conditions) by having no water of crystallization. Anhydrite occurs most often with salt deposits in association with gypsum, as in the cap rock of the Texas-Louisiana salt domes. Anhydrite is one of the major minerals in evaporite deposits;

Thursday, January 20, 2005

Follen, Karl

Graduated from the University of Giessen as a doctor of civil and canonical law (1818), Follen taught there and in the

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

Ahmad Ibn Hanbal

Of pure Arab stock, Ibn Hanbal belonged to the tribe of Shayban through both parents. He was still an infant when his father died at 30. When Ibn Hanbal was 15 he began to study the Traditions (Hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad. Seeking to learn from the great masters of his day, he travelled to the cities of Kufah and Basra in Iraq; Mecca, Hejaz, and Medina in Arabia; and to the lands of Yemen and

Tuesday, January 18, 2005


Group of peoples of central Celebes (Sulawesi), Indonesia. They are believed to be descendants of the invading Austronesian-speaking people that overran the island and absorbed or exterminated the aboriginal population. Later they were driven back from the coasts by Muslim Indonesians such as the Buginese. Their warfare and headhunting made it necessary to locate

Monday, January 17, 2005


A chemical element with properties intermediate between those of typical metals and nonmetals. Usually considered under this classification are the chemical elements boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. The rare elements polonium and astatine are also sometimes included. Most of these elements are important industrial materials, being

Sunday, January 16, 2005


In Greek mythology, a daughter of Icarius of Sparta and the nymph Periboea and wife of the hero Odysseus. In the Odyssey is told the story of how, during her husband's long absence after the Trojan War, many chieftains of Ithaca and nearby islands became her suitors. To spare herself their importunities she insists that they wait until she has woven a shroud for Laertes,

Saturday, January 15, 2005

Ernst, Richard R.

Ernst received both his B.A. in

Friday, January 14, 2005

Performing Arts, Popular - International.

The year 2002 was a classic one for African music, and arguably the finest of a batch of great new albums came from the celebrated Malian singer Salif Keita. His recent work had included excursions into jazz-rock and funk, but the album Moffou was very different - an acoustic set that marked a return to his African roots. The relaxed, gently rhythmic backing was provided by

Thursday, January 13, 2005


(French claquer: �to clap�), organized body of persons who, either for hire or from other motives, band together to applaud or deride a performance and thereby attempt to influence the audience. As an institution, the claque dates from performances at the theatre of Dionysus in ancient Athens. Philemon frequently defeated Menander in the 4th century BC in the comedy competitions,

Wednesday, January 12, 2005

Race, South Africa

Although race categories and racial ideology are both arbitrary and subjective, race was a convenient way to organize people within structures of presumed permanent inequality. South Africa's policy of apartheid exhibited the same basic racial ideology as the North American system but differed in two respects: the systematic state classification of races

Tuesday, January 11, 2005


In mathematics, the surface traced by a moving straight line (the generatrix) that always passes through a fixed point (the vertex). The path, to be definite, is directed by some closed plane curve (the directrix), along which the line always glides. In a right circular cone, the directrix is a circle, and the cone is a surface of revolution. The axis of this cone is a line through

Monday, January 10, 2005


Ancient capital of central Myanmar (Burma), on the left bank of the Irrawaddy River at the Myitnge confluence. It is linked by a road and rail bridge, 5,894 feet (1,796 m) long, to the town of Sagaing; this is the only place where the Irrawaddy is bridged. Its name is a corruption of the Burmese Inwa, meaning �entrance to the lake.� The site was chosen in 1364 by the Shans who succeeded the Pagan dynasty.

Sunday, January 09, 2005

Lock Haven University Of Pennsylvania

Public coeducational institution of higher learning in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, U.S. It is part of Pennsylvania's State System of Higher Education and comprises colleges of Arts and Sciences, and Education and Human Services. The university offers a range of bachelor's degree programs and several master's degree programs. It also offers a cooperative engineering

Saturday, January 08, 2005

Thutmose Iv

Thutmose IV was the son of his predecessor's chief queen. As prince, he was assigned to the military operational base at Memphis, near modern Cairo, where he spent his leisure

Friday, January 07, 2005

Computers, Herman Hollerith's census tabulator

The U.S. Constitution mandates that a census of the population be performed every 10 years. The first attempt at any mechanization of the census was in 1870, when statistical data were transcribed onto a rolling paper tape displayed through a small slotted window. As the size of America's population exploded in the 19th century, and the number of census questions expanded, the

Thursday, January 06, 2005

Dyer-bennet, Richard

Though born in England, Dyer-Bennet grew up in Canada and California and attended the University of California at

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Insurance, Conditions

Homeowner's policies may include the following conditions: (1) Owners are required to give immediate written notice of loss to the insurer or the insurer's agent. (2) The insured must provide proof of the amount of loss. This suggests that owners should keep accurate records of the items in a building and of their original cost. (3) The insured must cooperate with the insurer

Tuesday, January 04, 2005


In the play Cymbeline, the king

Monday, January 03, 2005

Anderson, Poul William

American science-fiction writer (b. Nov. 25, 1926, Bristol, Pa. - d. July 31, 2001, Orinda, Calif.), was the prolific author of more than 100 books of science fiction and fantasy. Over a period of about half a century, he tapped his knowledge of both science and Scandinavian folklore and mythology to create powerfully imaginative depictions of the future, writing in such varied styles as farce, adventure

Sunday, January 02, 2005

Altitude And Azimuth

In astronomy, gunnery, navigation, and other fields, two coordinates describing the position of an object above the Earth. Altitude in this sense is expressed as angular elevation (up to 90�) above the horizon. Azimuth, in astronomical measurement, is the number of degrees clockwise from due south (usually) to the object's vertical circle (i.e., a great circle through the object

Saturday, January 01, 2005

Arts, South Asian, Classical Sanskrit kavya (200 - 1200)

Prepared for by the systematization of the Sanskrit language by Panini, the development of the great epics, notably the Ramayana, and the refinements of prosody represented by the Pali lyrics, there arose, in the first centuries AD, a Sanskrit literary style that governed canons of taste for a millennium and remained influential far later through modern Indian languages