Monday, February 28, 2005


Any of about 10 species of perennial herbs belonging to the genus Dentaria, of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), native to northern temperate areas. The name toothwort refers to the plant's toothed, or scaly, rootstock. The four-petaled flowers, borne in a terminal cluster, are white, pink, or pale purple. Toothwort, pepperwort, or crinklewort (D.

Sunday, February 27, 2005


Legal proceeding by which a mortgagor's rights to a mortgaged property may be extinguished if the mortgagor (borrower) fails to live up to the obligations agreed to in the mortgage. The mortgagee (the lender) may then declare the entire debt due and owing and may seek to satisfy the debt by foreclosing on the property. Most foreclosures are brought in equity proceedings.

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Zane, Betty

Zane lived in her native Virginia (now part of West Virginia) in the town of Wheeling, which was founded in 1769 by her older brothers Ebenezer,

Friday, February 25, 2005

Annelid, Size range and diversity of structure

The length of annelids varies from a fraction of an inch to more than six metres (about 20 feet). The width may exceed 2.5 centimetres (about one inch) in the contracted state. Free-moving polychaetes and earthworms include the largest species. Leeches attain lengths of about 0.4 metre in the contracted state.

Thursday, February 24, 2005


Medieval Latin �Averrho�s�, also called �Ibn Rushd�, Arabic in full �Abu al-Walid Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Rushd � influential Islamic religious philosopher who integrated Islamic traditions with ancient Greek thought. At the request of the Almohad caliph Abu Ya'qub Yusuf, he produced a series of summaries and commentaries on most of Aristotle's works (1169 - 95) and on Plato's Republic, which exerted considerable influence in

Wednesday, February 23, 2005


In botany, adhesive substance of vegetable origin, mostly obtained as exudate from the bark of trees or shrubs belonging to the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae) of the pea order Fabales. Some plant gums are used in the form of water solutions in the manufacture of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods. When the water evaporates, a film having a considerable adhesive character

Tuesday, February 22, 2005

Algeria, Nationalist movements

Algerian nationalism developed out of three different tendencies. The first consisted of Algerians who had gained access to French education and earned their living in the French sector. Often called assimilationists, they pursued gradualist, reformist tactics, shunned illegal actions, and were prepared to consider permanent union with France if the rights

Monday, February 21, 2005


In Euripides' tragedy Hippolytus, he was son of Theseus, king of Athens, and the Amazon Hippolyte. Theseus' queen, Phaedra, fell in love

Sunday, February 20, 2005


Long narrative poem recounting heroic deeds, although the term has also been loosely used to describe novels, such as Tolstoy's War and Peace, and motion pictures, such as Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible. In literary usage, the term encompasses both oral and written compositions. The prime examples of the oral epic are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Outstanding examples

Saturday, February 19, 2005

Biblical Literature, Old Testament canon, texts, and versions

Otto Eissfeldt, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 3rd ed. (1964; Eng. trans., The Old Testament: An Introduction, 1965); The Cambridge History of the Bible (chb), 3 vol. (1963 - 70). (The Canon): Frants Buhl, Kanon und Text des Alten Testaments (1891; Eng. trans., Canon and Text of the Old Testament, 1892); Max L. Margolis, The Hebrew Scriptures in the Making (1922); Herbert E. Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament, 2nd ed. (1895); Solomon Zeitlin, �An Historical Study of the Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures,� Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, pp. 121 - 158 (1932). (Textual criticism, texts and manuscripts, and early versions): Frank Moore Cross, The Ancient Library of Qumr�n and Modern Biblical Studies, 2nd ed. (1961); �The History of the Biblical Text in the Light of Discoveries in the Judaean Desert,� Harvard Theological Review, 57:281 - 299 (1964); and �The Contribution of the Qumr�n Discoveries to the Study of the Biblical Text,� Israel Exploration Journal, 16:81 - 95 (1966); Christian D. Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico: Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible (1897, reprinted 1966); Moshe H. Goshen-gottstein, Linguistic Structure and Tradition in the Qumran Documents (1958); �Theory and Practice of Textual Criticism,� Textus, 3:130 - 158 (1963); and The Book of Isaiah: Sample Edition with Introduction (1965); Moshe Greenberg, �The Stabilization of the Text of the Hebrew Bible,� Journal of the American Oriental Society, 76:157 - 167 (1956). Paul Kahle, The Cairo Genizah, 2nd ed. (1959); Frederick G. Kenyon, The Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts, 5th ed. rev. (1958); Harry M. Orlinsky, �The Textual Criticism of the Old Testament,� in George E. Wright (ed.), The Bible and the Ancient Near East, pp. 113 - 132 (1961); Bleddyn J. Roberts, The Old Testament Text and Versions (1951); and �The Old Testament: Manuscripts, Text and Versions,� CHB, vol. 2, pp. 1 - 26 (1969); P.W. Skehan, �Qumran and the Present State of Old Testament Text Studies,� Journal of Biblical Literature, 78:21 - 25 (1959); S. Talmon, �Aspects of the Textual Transmission of the Bible in the Light of Qumran Manuscripts,� Textus, 4:95 - 132 (1964); Ernst Wurthwein, Der Text des Alten Testaments (1952; Eng. trans., The Text of the Old Testament, 1957). (Later and modern versions - English versions): David Daiches, The King James Version of the English Bible (1941, reprinted 1968); Margaret Deanesly, The Lollard Bible and Other Medieval Biblical Versions (1920, reprinted 1966); Herman Hailperin, Rashi and the Christian Scholars (1963); William F. Moulton, The History of the English Bible, 5th ed. (1911); Alfred W. Pollard, Records of the English Bible (1911); and, with G.R. Redgrave, A Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland and of English Books Printed Abroad 1475 - 1640 (1926, reprinted 1969); B.F. Westcott, A General View of the History of the English Bible, 3rd ed. rev. by W.A. Wright (1905). (Continental versions and non-European versions): Thomas H. Darlow and Horace F. Moule, Historical Catalogue of the Printed Editions of the Holy Scripture in the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 2 vol. (1903 - 11); Josef Schmid (ed.), �Moderne Bibel�bersetzungen,� Zeitschrift f�r katholische Theologie, 82:290 - 332 (1960).

Friday, February 18, 2005

Aniene River

Also called �Teverone, �Latin �Anio, � major tributary of the Tiber (Tevere) River in central Italy. It rises from two springs in the Simbruini Mountains near Subiaco, southeast of Rome, flows through a narrow valley past Tivoli, and meanders through the Campagna di Roma (territory) to join the Tiber north of Rome. It is 67 miles (108 km) long and has a drainage basin of 569 square miles (1,474 square km). The Roman emperor Nero created

Thursday, February 17, 2005


Also spelled �Bachan, or Batjan, � island, Maluku Utara kabupaten (North Molucca regency), Maluku propinsi (province), Indonesia, one of the northern Moluccas in the Molucca Sea. The islands of Kasiruta to the northwest, Mandioli to the west, and about 80 other islets compose the Kepulauan Bacan group. With an area of about 700 sq mi (1,800 sq km), Bacan is mountainous in the south, rising to 6,926 ft (2,111 m), relatively level and lower

Wednesday, February 16, 2005

Motion Picture, History Of The, Germany

Because of its ownership of the Tobis-Klangfilm patents, the German film industry found itself in a position of relative strength in the early years of sound, and it produced several important films during that period, including Josef von Sternberg's Der blaue Engel (The Blue Angel, 1930), G.W. Pabst's two antiwar films, Westfront 1918 (1930) and Kameradschaft (1931), and his adaptation of Bertolt

Tuesday, February 15, 2005

Bulge, Battle Of The

Also called �Battle Of The Ardennes� (Dec. 16, 1944 - Jan. 16, 1945), the last German offensive on the Western Front during World War II; an unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory. The name Battle of the Bulge was appropriated from Winston Churchill's optimistic description, in May 1940, of the resistance that he mistakenly supposed was being offered to the Germans' breakthrough in that area just

Monday, February 14, 2005


Early type of Buddhist monastery consisting of an open court surrounded by open cells accessible through an entrance porch. The viharas in India were originally constructed to shelter the monks during the rainy season, when it became difficult for them to lead the wanderer's life. They took on a sacred character when small stupas (housing sacred relics) and images

Sunday, February 13, 2005

Biblical Literature, The Book of Jubilees

The book is written in the form of a revealed history of Israel from the creation until the dwelling of Moses on Mt. Sinai, where the content of the book was

Saturday, February 12, 2005

Malacostracan, The nervous system and sensory organs

The malacostracan central nervous system consists, in primitive forms, of a ventral nerve cord and ganglia within each body segment. The supraesophageal ganglion innervates the eyes, antennules, and antennae, and the subesophageal ganglion innervates the mouthparts of the head region. In amphipods and anomuran decapods the ganglia of abdominal segments are

Friday, February 11, 2005

Malacostracan, The nervous system and sensory organs

Chemical element, metal of Group IIb, or the zinc group, of the periodic table.

Thursday, February 10, 2005


Any of several Bantu-speaking peoples scattered over wide areas of the southeastern part of Congo (Kinshasa), eastern Angola, and northern and northwestern Zambia. The various regional groups - the Lunda of Musokantanda in Congo, Kazembe, Shinje, Kanongesha, Ndembu, Luvale (Luena, Balovale), Chokwe, Luchazi, Songo, and Mbunda - are all of Congo origin and broke away from the

Wednesday, February 09, 2005


Japanese decorative technique used for lacquerware and woodenware, in which linings of mother-of-pearl or of abalone shells are cut into designs and either glued onto or inserted into the surface of the lacquer or wood. There are several varieties of raden lacquerware. Atsugai-ho, a technique using thick shell, consists of two methods, one of which is inlay: the shell

Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Sanmicheli, Michele

He was a pupil of his father, Giovanni, and his uncle Bartolomeo, both architects in Verona. At an early age he went to Rome, where he studied with architects trained under Donato Bramante and Giuliano da Sangallo. There

Monday, February 07, 2005


Eni is an outgrowth of Agip (Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli), an oil and gas agency set up by the Italian fascist

Sunday, February 06, 2005


In astronomy, the difference in direction of a celestial object as seen by an observer from two widely separated points. The measurement of parallax is used directly to find the distance of the body from the Earth (geocentric parallax) and from the Sun (heliocentric parallax). The two positions of the observer and the position of the object form a triangle; if the base

Saturday, February 05, 2005

New Zealand, Annexation and further settlement

In 1838 the British government decided upon at least partial annexation. In 1839 it commissioned William Hobson, a naval officer, as lieutenant governor and consul to the Maori chiefs, and he annexed the whole country, the North Island by the right of cession from the Maori chiefs and the South Island by the right of discovery. At first New Zealand was legally part of New South

Friday, February 04, 2005

Bebel, August

Bebel was the son of a Prussian noncommissioned officer. Growing up in extreme poverty

Thursday, February 03, 2005

Scaevola, Gaius Mucius

Legendary Roman hero who is said to have saved Rome (c. 509 BC) from conquest by the Etruscan king Lars Porsena. According to the legend, Mucius volunteered to assassinate Porsena, who was besieging Rome, but killed his victim's attendant by mistake. Brought before the Etruscan royal tribunal, he declared that he was one of 300 noble youths who had sworn to take the king's life. He demonstrated

Tuesday, February 01, 2005


City, Saxony Land (state), eastern Germany, on the Lausitzer Neisse River, near the frontiers of Poland and the Czech Republic. Originating as the Slav settlement of Sitowir, it was mentioned in 1230 and chartered in 1255, when it belonged to Bohemia. Zittau joined the federation of Lusatian towns in 1346 and fell to Saxony in 1635. Four 13th- and 15th-century churches still remain. There are training